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Masahiro Toyoda, Yuko Yokota, Marni Barnes, and Midori Kaneko

the participants’ psychological stress using the STAI ( Spielberger et al., 1983 ) Japanese version [STAI-Form JYZ ( Hidano et al., 2000 )]. Anxiety is thought to be a variety of stress ( Aiken, 1961 ). The STAI can be used to measure two different

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Ahmad Hassan, Chen Qibing, Jiang Tao, Lv Bing-Yang, Li Nian, Shu Li, Li Yu Tng, Jun Zhuo Li, Shang Guan Ziyue, and Muhammad Sohaib Tahir

” or “focus” to determine the level of concentration, whereas the eSense Meditation meter recorded the active mental processes within the brain and indicated the intensity of each participant’s level of mental “relaxation” or “calmness.” The STAI

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Seong-Hyun Park and Richard H. Mattson

collected included the length of hospitalization, analgesics used for postoperative pain control, vital signs, ratings of pain intensity, pain distress, anxiety and fatigue (PPAF), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-1 (STAI-Y1), the Environmental

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Seong-Hyun Park and Richard H. Mattson

each patient. This included length of hospitalization, analgesics used for postoperative pain control, vital signs, ratings of pain intensity, pain distress, anxiety and fatigue (PPAF), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-1 (STAI-Y1), Environmental