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Leora Radetsky, Jaimin S. Patel, and Mark S. Rea

LEDs are increasingly available and more efficacious ( PPFD per watt, PPFD /W) than incumbent high-intensity discharge (HID) light sources, making them attractive for horticulture (e.g., Gomez and Izzo, 2018 ; Jones, 2018 ; Massa and Norrie

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Robert C. Morrow

Solid-state lighting using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) represents a fundamentally different technology from the gaseous discharge-type lamps currently used in horticulture. Capabilities like spectral composition control and high light output with

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Gioia D. Massa, Hyeon-Hye Kim, Raymond M. Wheeler, and Cary A. Mitchell

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have a variety of advantages over traditional forms of horticultural lighting. Their small size, durability, long lifetime, cool emitting temperature, and the option to select specific wavelengths for a targeted plant

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Cary A. Mitchell

test the feasibility of using LEDs to advance aspects of the horticulture industry [National Institute of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) Grant 2010-51181-21369, http://leds.hrt.msu.edu ]. Participation in this project

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Gary W. Stutte

LED technology is fundamentally altering the use and application of supplemental lighting for controlled environment agriculture. This paper provides a brief overview of the rapid development of LED lighting and some thoughts on the future

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Joey H. Norikane

(water source and fertilizer), light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, humidity, etc., should be well-defined. If LED lighting is applied, then additionally, the spectral quality of the light will need to be documented. These steps are taken to ensure

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Wesley C. Randall and Roberto G. Lopez

intensity LEDs. Light-emitting diodes are solid-state, single junction semiconductors that are capable of producing light wavelengths as short as 250 nm and up to greater than 1000 nm. Thus, they are useful for testing specific wavelength combinations for

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Brian R. Poel and Erik S. Runkle

( Currey et al., 2012 ; Lopez and Runkle, 2008 ; Pramuk and Runkle, 2005 ; Torres and Lopez, 2011 ). DLI can be increased during periods of low DLI with SL, which is usually provided by HPS lamps. LEDs have shown promise as SL in horticultural

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Kim D. Bowman and Ute Albrecht

rootstock types under modern greenhouse conditions and in response to the use of modern supplemental HPS or LED lights. Supplemental light has been studied in many plant systems and has been shown to typically have large effects to improve or change plant

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Qingwu Meng and Erik S. Runkle

technical advantages over conventional lamps. Conventional lamps emit a broad spectrum of light, and their spectral distribution cannot be easily modified. In contrast, LEDs emit photons of specific colors of light by blending different proportions of