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S. Brooks Parrish and Zhanao Deng

C . × hortulanum due to the interspecific hybridizations made among four caladium species. Most commercial caladium plants are produced by forcing tubers. Florida growers produce essentially all the caladium tubers used in the United States and

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Brent Harbaugh

Abstract

Visual symptoms of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and B deficiencies were induced in Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey ‘Candidum’. Characteristic symptoms were photographed and described and a key summarizing these symptoms follows:

a. Chlorosis or necrosis not expressed;

b. Petioles brittle and/or leaves orbicular.........................................................................................................................B

bb. Plants grow slowly, but have no other symptoms......................................................................................................P

bbb. Rust colored spots on underside of leaf near petiole, spots may become “windows” (only the cuticle and epidermal layer remain)................................................................................................................................................. Ca

aa. Chlorosis and/or necrosis expressed;

b. Chlorosis primary symptom.

c. Interveinal and veinal chlorosis

d. Chlorosis evident as leaves unfurl............................................................................................................... Mn

dd. Chlorosis not evident as leaves unfurl, older leaf blades and veins may turn bright yellow as they abscise................................................................................................................................................................... N

cc. Interveinal chlorosis...................................................................................................................................................Fe

bb. Both chlorosis and necrosis expressed.

c. Interveinal chlorosis developing into necrotic spots, leaves turn bright yellow (except basal veins remain green) as they abscise............................................................................................................................................. Mg

cc. Necrotic specks (@ 1 mm) near veins, general chlorosis............................................................................... Mn

bbb. Necrosis primary symptom.

c. Necrotic lesions (2–5 cm) on leaf apex and distal m argin.................................................................................K

cc. Marginal necrosis.

d. Necrosis spreads toward the center of the leaf, margins dry but the leaf blade around petiole remains intact.......................................................................................................................................................................K

dd. Interveinal rust colored, blotchy areas.........................................................................................................Ca

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Zhe Cao, Zhanao Deng, and Mike Mclaughlin

×hortulanum for fancy-leaved caladium. Little information is available in the literature about the parentage of fancy-leaved caladium cultivars that were produced in other countries or those produced in Florida before 1976. The species that contributed to the

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Zhanao Deng, Fahrettin Goktepe, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Jinguo Hu

included as outgroups for the dendrogram. Table 1. List of 45 caladium commercial cultivars ( Caladium × hortulanum ) used in this study, their leaf characteristics (shape, main vein color, impact color, and presence of spots or blotches), stress

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

Cultivated caladiums ( Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey) are members of the aroid family and have been important pot and landscape plants ( Evans et al., 1992 ). They are known for their bright and colorful leaves, adaptation to tropical and

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Zhanao Deng, Fahrettin Goktepe, and Brent K. Harbaugh

th century, breeding of this crop has been conducted primarily in Florida ( Wilfret, 1993 ). It is generally believed that cultivated caladiums ( C . × hortulanum ) resulted from intraspecific or interspecific hybridizations among several Caladium

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Zhe Cao, Shunzhao Sui, Qian Yang, and Zhanao Deng

Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) stimulates flowering in Caladium hortulanum Birdsey HortScience 14 72 73 Henny, R.J. 1982 Inheritance of foliar variegation in two Dieffenbachia cultivars J. Hered. 73 384 Henny, R.J. 1992 Inheritance of the foliar variegation

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Fahrettin Goktepe, Teresa Seijo, Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, Natalia A. Peres, and Robert J. McGovern

Caladiums ( Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey) are ornamental aroids valued for their bright, colorful leaves. They are widely used in landscapes, especially in the southern United States, and in production of pot plants worldwide ( Evans et al

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Michelle A. Grabowski and Dean K. Malvick

caladium cultivars in controlled environments, suggesting that there may be varying levels of resistance to S. sclerotiorum within cultivars of caladium. The pedigrees of many cultivars of Caladium ×hortulanum are unknown, but most are believed to

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

their excellent technical support. This research was funded by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station (FAES) and grants from the Florida Caladium Growers' Association and the Gloeckner Foundation.