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Donald J. Merhaut, Lea Corkidi, Maren Mochizuki, Toan Khuong, Julie Newman, Ben Faber, Oleg Daugovish, and Sonya Webb

. 2009 and Oct. 2009, respectively. These priority drainage areas were classified as first, second, or third tier based on the total number of benchmark exceedances, the number of classes of pollutants, the number of total maximum daily loads effective at

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Sarah A. White

is uncertain. In the two most recent cases in which regulations were imposed in an effort to protect water resources, the Florida numeric nutrient criterion used concentration-based end points, whereas the Chesapeake Bay used total maximum daily loads

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Carolyn DeMoranville

Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection 2012 Final total maximum daily load of total phosphorus for White Island Pond Plymouth/Wareham, MA. TMDL Rpt. MA95166-201009-1 CN330.2. 27 Jan. 2015. < http

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John C. Majsztrik and John D. Lea-Cox

applied to suburban areas. WHAT IS A TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD? A TMDL is a numeric scientific estimate of the maximum daily amount of any pollutant that a body of water can receive and still meet water quality standards. Pollutant loads can be established

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Eric H. Simonne and Monica Ozores-Hampton

With the development and implementation of best management practices (BMP), extension educators are facing a new and unexpected combination of challenges and opportunities. Because the BMP mandate requires a combination of research, demonstration, and outreach, it may affirm the relevance of the land grant mission in the 21st century, engage universities in interagency alliances, and help rediscover the wonders of the proven extension method. The extension approach to water and nutrient management needs to shift from “pollute less by applying less fertilizer” to “pollute less by better managing water.” Applied research is leading to advances in areas such as nutrient cycles and controlled-release fertilizers. At the same time, universities need to walk a fine line between education and regulation, address perennial issues of overfertilization, and consider the reformulation of recommendations that are now used in a quasi-regulatory environment. A combination of education, consensus, and novel approaches is needed to adapt the rigor of research to a multitude of growing conditions and risks of nutrient discharge in order to comply with U.S. federal laws and restore water quality.

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Luther C. Carson and Monica Ozores-Hampton

This publication summarizes the factors influencing controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) nutrient release, CRF placement, CRF rate, and CRF application timing for the two major seepage-irrigated vegetable production systems (plasticulture and open-bed) in Florida. One of several best management practices for vegetable production, CRF helps growers achieve total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) established in Florida under the Federal Clean Water Act. Several factors intrinsic to CRF and to the vegetable production systems affect CRF nutrient release, making implementation of CRF fertility programs challenging. Increasing or decreasing soil temperature increases or decreases nutrient release from CRF. Soil moisture required for uninhibited plant growth is within the soil moisture range for optimum CRF nutrient release. CRF substrate affects nutrient release rate, which is inversely related to coating thickness and granule size. Soil microbes, soil texture, and soil pH do not influence nutrient release rate. Field placement of CRFs in seepage-irrigated, plasticulture, and open-bed production should be in the bottom mix at bed formation and soil incorporated or banded at planting, respectively. In plasticulture production systems, soil fumigation and delayed planting for continuous harvest may add a 14- to 21-day lag period between fertilization and planting, which along with different season lengths will influence CRF release length selected by growers. Using a hybrid fertilizer system in plasticulture production or incorporating CRF at planting in open-bed production allows for up to a 25% reduction in the nitrogen (N) rate needed.

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Sarah A. White

legislative actions taken to restore the Chesapeake Bay that culminated with introduction of federally mandated total maximum daily load limits in 2010 ( U.S. EPA, 2010a ) and current efforts to accelerate implementation of best management practices. The need

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Nicholas A. Pershey, Bert M. Cregg, Jeffrey A. Andresen, and R. Thomas Fernandez

PO 4 3− -P may promote cyanobacteria blooms that can damage sensitive ecosystems ( Anonymous, 2008 ). In addition to regulating concentration, total maximum daily load (TMDL) standards have been developed on a case-specific basis to set a maximum rate

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Rachel Mack, James S. Owen, Alex X. Niemiera, and Joyce Latimer

). To ensure human safety and protect the environment, the Environmental Protection Agency issued a total maximum daily load (TMDL) establishing limits to the amount of sediment and nutrients that can be discharged into tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

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Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm, and Jerry B. Sartain

impaired by high nutrient concentrations require water quality management plans outlined by the Total Maximum Daily Load Program [ Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), 2009 ; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2010 ]. Under the