early cell enlargement and with a cessation in cell division after an inflexion point. I therefore treated melon fruit with MH to clarify the relationship between the size and the number of cells and sugar accumulation in the fruit. Materials and
Yasutaka Kano, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Masami Sekine, Hideyuki Goto and Akira Sugiura
observed to decrease in response to increased application of nitrogen fertilizer ( Takebe et al., 1995 ; Watanabe et al., 1988 ). Kano illustrated that cell size in melon fruit is closely related to sugar accumulation ( Kano, 2003 , 2004 , 2005 ). With
Hiroshi Yakushiji, Hiroshi Nonami, Toshio Fukuyama, Sukeyuki Ono, Nobuo Takagi and Yasushi Hashimoto
The effect of water stress induced to enhance sugar accumulation in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit was investigated. Satsuma mandarin trees were subjected to water stress using mulch cultivation from late August to early December. In mulch treatment, soil was covered with double-layered plastic sheets that prevented rainfall from permeating the soil, but allowed water from soil to evaporate. The water status of soil, fine roots, pericarps, and juice vesicles was determined using the isopiestic psychrometer. As the severity of water stress increased, both water potential and osmotic potential of fine roots and pericarps significantly decreased in plants grown under mulch cultivation compared to well-watered trees. Although water potential and osmotic potential decreased, turgor of both roots and pericarps of the water stressed trees did not decrease under water stress conditions. Because turgor was maintained, osmoregulation occurred in Satsuma mandarin trees in response to water stress. The osmotic potential of juice vesicles in water-stressed fruit gradually decreased, and sugars accumulated in vesicle cells. Concentrations of sucrose, fructose, and glucose increased in fruit sap under water stress, and the acidity in the fruit juice increased. Furthermore, the total sugar content per fruit of water stressed trees was significantly higher than in fruit of well-watered trees. These results suggest that sugar accumulation in Satsuma mandarin fruit was not caused by dehydration under water stress but rather that sugars were accumulated by active osmoregulation in response to water stress. When sugar components in osmoregulated fruit were analyzed, it was found that monosaccharides, i.e., glucose and fructose, were largely responsible for active osmoregulation in fruit under water stress conditions.
Graham H. Barry, William S. Castle and Frederick S. Davies
Citrus rootstocks have well-known effects on tree size, crop load, fruit size, and various fruit quality factors. Fruit from trees budded on invigorating rootstocks are generally larger with lower soluble solids concentration (SSC) and titratable acidity compared to fruit from trees budded on less invigorating rootstocks. Although it is unclear how rootstocks exert their influence on juice quality of Citrus L. species, plant water relations are thought to play a central role. In addition, the larger fruit size associated with invigorating rootstocks and the inverse relationship between SSC and fruit size implies that fruit borne on trees on invigorating rootstocks have lower SSC due to dilution effects in larger fruit. To determine how rootstock type affects sugar accumulation in fruit of Citrus species, controlled water-deficit stress was applied to mature `Valencia' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees on Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] or rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) rootstocks. Withholding water from the root zone of citrus trees during stage II of fruit development decreased midday stem water potential and increased the concentrations of primary osmotica, fructose and glucose. Sucrose concentration was not affected, suggesting that sucrose hydrolysis took place. Increased concentrations of sugars and SSC in fruit from moderately water-stressed trees occurred independently of fruit size and juice content. Thus, passive dehydration of juice sacs, and concentration of soluble solids, was not the primary cause of differences in sugar accumulation. Controlled water-deficit stress caused active osmotic adjustment in fruit of `Valencia' sweet orange. However, when water-deficit stress was applied later in fruit development (e.g., stage III) there was no increase in sugars or SSC. The evidence presented supports the hypothesis that differential sugar accumulation of citrus fruit from trees on rootstocks of contrasting vigor and, hence, plant water relations, is caused by differences in tree water status and the enhancement of sucrose hydrolysis into component hexose sugars resulting in osmotic adjustment. Therefore, inherent rootstock differences affecting plant water relations are proposed as a primary cause of differences in sugar accumulation and SSC among citrus rootstocks.
Hiroshi Yakushiji, Kunihisa Morinaga and Hiroshi Nonami
Mechanisms of sugar accumulation in response to drought stress in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit were investigated. Predawn leaf water potentials averaged -0.35MPa for well-watered, -0.60 MPa for moderately drought-stressed, and -1.00 MPa for severely drought-stressed glasshouse-grown 3-year-old trees. Fruit peel turgor and fruit growth of the moderately drought-stressed trees recovered to a similar value to that of the well-watered trees. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of both moderately and severely drought-stressed trees were significantly lower than those of the well-watered plants. However, the total sugar content per fruit of moderately drought-stressed trees was the highest among the drought treatments. A 13C-labeling experiment showed that 13C distribution in fruit grown under the moderately drought-stressed condition was the highest. These findings indicate that sugar accumulation in fruit was caused by an increase in translocation of photosynthates into fruit, especially into the juice sacs, under drought stress.
John R. Stommel
Sugar accumulation throughout fruit development in the cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and a wild green-fruited species (L. peruvianum) are being examined. Results obtained using HPLC demonstrate that the fruit of L. peruvianum accessions accumulate the disaccharide, sucrose, in addition to the monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, common to L. esculentum. When detectable, sucrose in the L. esculentum cultivar FM6203 was present at very low levels throughout development. Analysis of mature fruit of L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, L. pimpinellifolium, and L. cheesmanii accessions indicate glucose and fructose as the primary storage sugars. Similar to L. peruvianum, mature fruit of the green-fruited species, L. hirsutum f. typicum and L. hirsutum f. glabratum, accumulate sucrose in addition to glucose and fructose.
Lili Zhou, David A. Christopher and Robert E. Paull
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) source size and sink strength were modified by a single defoliation or continual defoliation and fruit thinning. Fruit set, development, weight, total sugar (sum of sucrose, fructose, and glucose), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS), and acid invertase (AI) enzyme activities in response to defoliation and fruit thinning were determined. The effects of defoliation and fruit thinning varied with weather conditions, plant growth conditions, and cultivar. Removal of 75% of the leaves significantly reduced new flower production and fruit set, and decreased ripe fruit total soluble solids (TSS), while 50% defoliation did not reduce new fruit set or ripe fruit TSS. When every third leaf from the oldest leaf was not removed, the number of new flowers was reduced by 47% more than when the same number of leaves was removed from the oldest to younger leaves. Continual removal of old leaves reduced new fruit set, fruit weight, and TSS in the 168 day experimental period. Fruit thinning increased new fruit set and ripe fruit TSS. Larger fruit size, faster fruit development, lower respiration rate, and higher sugar contents and AI activity were observed in immature (young) fruit when old fruit were removed. AI activity was reduced during early fruit development and increased again in mature fruit in plants subjected to defoliation, and suggested a role for AI in mature fruit sugar accumulation, while SS activity declined significantly in fruit 154 and 175 days after anthesis and in mature fruit when plants were subjected to continual defoliation. SPS activity was not affected significantly by defoliation or fruit thinning. Source-sink balance was critical for papaya fruit set, development, and sugar accumulation and each mature leaf was able to provide photoassimilate for about three fruit.
To investigate the relationship between cell size and sugar accumulation, fruit of the melon was heated during the early stage of the growing period. The minimum air temperature in the heating apparatus was ≈10 °C higher than the ambient air temperature, and the weight of the heated fruit was greater than that of the control fruit. The number of rectangular parallelepiped (7-mm-long sample serially collected beginning at one end of the 10-mm-wide strip removed from the 10-mm-thick disk at the maximum transverse diameter of the fruit to the opposite end) with cells larger than 200 μm in the heated fruit at 17 days after anthesis (DAA, the end of heating treatment) was much larger that of the control fruit. The mean cell size in the heated fruit at 17 DAA was larger than that of the control fruit. Mean sucrose content of the heated fruit on 40 DAA was larger than the level in the control fruit. Higher fruit temperatures in melons covered with heating apparatus results in the predominance of larger cells and increased accumulation of sucrose in the fruit.
Yanwen Gong and Theophanes Solomos
Previous research has shown that subjecting bananas to low O2 treatment during the climacteric rise decreases the rate of sugar accumulation but the fruits eventually ripen. In the present study we applied low O2 in fruits whose ripening had been initiated by exogenous C2H4 and in preclimacteric ones. In preclimacteric fruits low O2 suppressed the climacteric rise during the duration of the experiment (20 days). It completely inhibited the increase in sugars, invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities while there was a sharp increase in sucrose synthase (SS). In control fruits the increase in sugar content coincides with a sharp increase in invertase, and SPS and a decline in SS. Hypoxia inhibited the increase in invertase and SPS while it induced an increase in SS. Nevertheless, the activities of invertase and SPS in the climacteric hypoxic fruits was higher than in hypoxic preclimacteric ones. The results, thus, indicate that the imposition of low O2 at the preclimacteric stage is much more efficient in delaying banana ripening than when it is applied after the initiation of ripening.
Yasutaka Kano, Youichi Ikeshita, Yuri Kanamori and Nobuyuki Fukuoka
watermelon fruit ( Citrullus lanatus ) J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 79 142 145 Kano, Y. 2006 Effects of heating fruit on cell size and sugar accumulation in melon fruit ( Cucumis melo L.) HortScience 41 1431 1434