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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

( Table 4 ). However, this difference was not significant at the shallow planting depth of 2 inches. Table 4. Sweetpotato storage root number and plant stand in response to planting depth and transplant size at Clinton, NC, in 2013. The interaction of

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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

Studies were conducted in North Carolina to determine the effect of holding durations (HDs) [0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days before planting (DBP)] of ‘Covington’ sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) transplants on plant stand and storage root numbers and yield in production fields. In a second field study, the effect of preplant irrigation (PI) treatments (PI and nonirrigation) were evaluated along with the transplant HD on plant stand, storage root numbers, and yield. Transplants held for 7 DBP did not survive as well as the other treatments (lower plant stands) and had lower no. 1, marketable, and total storage root numbers and yields than other holding treatments. HD of 1 or 3 DBP resulted in higher plant stands, and no. 1, marketable, and total numbers of storage roots and yields than holding for 0, 5, or 7 DBP. This study affirms the importance of soil moisture at and shortly after planting for transplant survival and yield. Holding transplants for 1–3 DBP can improve stand establishment and yields when dry conditions occur either before or soon after planting. However, holding transplants for 7 DBP can result in reduced plant stands and yields when stress/dry conditions occur soon after planting.

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Desmond G. Mortley, Douglas R. Hileman, Conrad K. Bonsi, Walter A. Hill, and Carlton E. Morris

. Cultivars significantly influenced storage root dry mass, fibrous root dry mass, foliage dry mass, and HI, but had no significant effect neither on storage root number, percent dry mass, %DM, nor percent dry mass of foliage. Table 3. Statistical significance

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Thammasak Thongket and James O. Garner Jr.

Responses of four sweetpotato genotypes (`Centennial', `Travis', `Vardaman' and `MS 21-2') to water stress were studied. Two irrigation regimes (irrigation vs non-irrigation) were imposed on five-week old cuttings grown in a greenhouse environment. Transpiration and leaf diffusive resistance (LDR) were measured with a steady state porometer and mid-day total leaf water potentials were determined with a thermocouple psychrometer. Leaf growth was inhibited earlier than root growth. Water stress caused a reduction of leaf size in Centennial and in leaf number in the other three. Storage root number of Vardaman was not inhibited by limited soil moisture but development of storage roots was retarded by water stress. Total growth under non-irrigation of MS 21-2 was inhibited more than Vardaman. Mid-day leaf water potential did not show promise as a good indicator of water status. Genotypic differences in the water stress sensitivity as measured by LDR, were observed.

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Desmond Mortley, Conrad Bonsi, Philip Loretan, Walter Hill, and Carlton Morris

Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of spacing within and between growth channels on the yield of `TI-1551 sweet potatoes grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique (NFT). Spacings within channels were 12.7, 17.8 and 25.4 cm whereas between growth channels the spacings were 12.7, 25.4 and 38.1 cm. Vine cuttings (15 cm) placed in each channel (0.15×0.15×1.2 m) were supplied with a modified half-Hoagland solution and grown for 120 days. Storage root number, fresh and dry weights and foliage fresh and dry weights tended to increase as spacing between channels increased. Spacing of plants within channels had no significant effect on any sweet potato growth responses.

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C.M. Tankou, B. Schaffer, S.K. O'Hair, and C.A. Sanchez

The effects of applied N and shading duration on net gas exchange and growth of two southern Florida cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) cultivars grown in containers were determined. Both cultivars responded similarly to shading and N with respect to the measured variables. There were no interactions between shading duration and N application rate for any of the variables measured. Tissue dry weights, total leaf N and chlorophyll concentrations, net CO2 assimilation (A), transpiration (E), water-use efficiency (WUE), and stomatal conductance (gs) were quadratically related to the concentration of N applied to the soil. The optimum N application rate for maximum growth of both cultivars was 60 mg/plant per day. Increased shading duration reduced A, E, gs, WUE, storage root number, and weight and increased the shoot : root ratio.

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S. Burrell, D. Mortley, P. Loretan, A.A Trotman, P. P David, and G. W. Carver

The effects of light intensity on three sweetpotato cultivars [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were evaluated in growth chambers, as part of NASA's Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program for long duration space missions. Vine cuttings of `TI-155', `GA Jet', and TUJ1 were grown using nutrient film technique (NFT) in a modified half Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio in channels (0.15×0.15×1.2 m). Plants were exposed to irradiance levels of 360 or 720 umols m-2s-1 with an 18/6 photoperiod in a randomized complete block design with two replications. Temperature was set at 28:22 lightdark and RH was 70%. Differences in plant response to were more related to cultivars than the effect of light intensity. Storage root number (8) fresh, (786 g/plant) and dry weights (139 g/plant) were highest for `TI-155' while foliage fresh and dry weights were highest for `TUJ1' when averaged across light levels. TI-155' (921 g/plant) and `GA Jet' (538 g/plant) produced greater yields at higher irradiance. `TUJ1' produced a higher yield (438 g/plant at the lower intensity compared to 219 (g/plant) at the higher intensity, suggesting this cultivar could produce storage roots in similar conditions in a CELSS.

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Desmond G. Mortley, P.A. Loretan, C.K. Bonsi, and W.A. Hill

Growth chamber studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of four diurnal temperatures (24/18C, 26/20C, 28/22C, and 30/24C) on yield, leaf expansion and unfolding, and vine length of sweetpotatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. Four vine cuttings (15 cm in length) of `TI-155' and `Georgia Jet' were grown for 120 days using a modified half-Hoagland nutrient solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio. Irradiance at canopy level averaged 600 μmol·m–2·s–1 at an 18/6 photoperiod, and RH of 70%. Storage root number/plant for both cultivars decreased with increased temperature. Storage root fresh and dry weights for both cultivars increased with temperatures up to 28/22C and declined at 30/24C. Foliage fresh and dry weights were not influenced by temperature for either cultivar. Leaf expansion rate and vine length were highest at 26/20C and lowest at 24/18C for both cultivars. Leaf unfolding rate was not affected by temperature foe either cultivar, but was more influenced by time of measurements.

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D. G. Mortley, C. K. Bonsi, W. A. Hill, P. A. Loretan, C. E. Morris, A. A. Trotman, and P. P. David

Growth chamber studies were conducted to determine growth responses of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) to differing photoperiods (PP) when grown by use of NFT. Four vine cuttings (15 cm length) of GA Jet and TI-155 were grown for 120 days at 12/12, 15/9, 18/6, and 21/3 light/dark PP. Irradiance averaged 427 umol m-2 s-1, with day/night temperatures of 28/22C and 70% RH. A modified half Hoagland's solution was used. Number of storage roots/plant, and storage root fresh and dry weights for GA Jet increased as PP increased from 12 to 21 h, while storage root fresh and dry weights for TI-155 increased up to 18 h PP but declined at 21 h PP. Storage root number/plant for TI-155 declined at 15 h PP but was higher at both 18 and 21 h PP. Highest foliage dry weight for GA Jet was obtained at 21 h PP while that for TI-155 was obtained at 18 h PP. Leaf area index (LAI) for GA Jet increased with increased PP, while LAI for TI-155 increased with increased PP up to 18 h then declined at 21 h PP.

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Bandara Gajanayake, K. Raja Reddy, Mark W. Shankle, and Ramon A. Arancibia

Fisher’s protected least significant difference test ( P < 0.05). Storage root number and time to 50% storage root initiation were treated as dependent variables and the soil moisture levels as independent variables. Results and Discussion Using soil