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High summer temperatures may reduce plant stands of direct-seeded fall broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck). The influence of constant and diurnally alternating temperatures in the range of 5 to 42C on germination and emergence of `Packman' broccoli was evaluated. Germination was defined as protrusion of the radicle from the seedcoat, and emergence as 10 mm elongation of the radicle. The range of constant temperatures from 10 to 30C for 14 days was satisfactory for 90% germination and 75% emergence. However, alternating temperatures extended the acceptable emergence range to 5/17 through 20/32C. Since soil temperatures in warm climates often exceed 20/32C during the summer, high-temperature inhibition of seed germination and seedling emergence is a potentially important factor limiting direct-seeded broccoli stands.

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-containing compounds ( Bethke et al., 2007 ) are used to overcome seed dormancy and improve seed germination. This investigation explored options to accelerate black cumin seed germination using presowing seed treatments to enhance the uniformity of emergence in field

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Seed germination is a critical step to achieve economic success in a transplant operation. Total germination of a seed lot dictates total plant sales by the producer, while uniformity of germination dictates the quality of the transplant crop. Using high vigor seed will help to achieve uniform stands, as well as maximize stands, in the transplant house or field. In order to maintain the highest seed quality, transplant producers should store unused seeds at recommended temperature and relative humidity for the crop species. Methods to promote uniformity and optimum stands under a wide range of conditions include the use of seed priming, film coating with fungicides, and pelleting for ease of planting.

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seeds are light-induced seeds with physiologic dormancy, and their dormancy can be broken by gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), cold stratification, and dry storage ( Liu et al., 2017 ). We have tested the seed germination of three species of Paulownia [empress

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seeding is generally poor unless special techniques, such as hydromulch, are used ( McDavid, 2012 ). Seed germination requires an optimal range of environmental conditions, primarily concerning temperature and water availability, for germination

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continuation of that research, the objective of the present study was to evaluate pure SGFW and different SGFW-based substrates as alternatives to coir and vermiculite for seed germination and seedling growth of ‘Mrs. Burns’ lemon basil. Materials and methods

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the collected kapok fruit are the unsplit fruit. So far, the effects of storage on seed germination of light-brown seeds are not clear, and this is a disadvantage to the reforestation and restoration projects in the region. In the present study, the

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, holds significant water in its layers, and seedlings can easily emerge through it upon germination ( Dana and Lerner, 2001 ). Walker et al. (1984) reported that watering was less frequent when a top coating was used in seed germination. A vermiculite

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and germination physiology have not yet been recorded. Seed germination is an intricate biochemical process involving a complex of morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes in the embryo. Failure to germinate when environmental conditions

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carota ), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), and cucumber. Laboratory experiments have shown that compounds produced by brassica cover crops can inhibit weed seed germination ( Norsworthy and Meehan, 2005a , 2005b ; Norsworthy et al., 2006 ). Studies with

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