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Marcel M. C. Tsang and Sheldon C. Furutani


A fast and accurate method for determining the percentage of moisture content of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche) nuts using a household microwave oven is described. Drying time was reduced from 48 hr for the forced-draft oven method to 16 min. No statistical difference in percent moisture values was detected between microwave drying and forced-draft drying.

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Marcel M.C. Tsang and Jack K. Fujii

An electronic moisture meter (Dole Model 400) was calibrated for rapid determination of moisture content of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche) nuts. The meter was found suitable to measure the moisture content (from 9.5% to 21.5% on a wet-weight basis) of macadamia nuts with sufficient accuracy for routine use by farmers and processors. On average, the meter readings were about 0.21% ± 0.08% se lower compared to readings obtained from the standard forced-air oven technique. A moisture analysis with the meter required <5 minutes compared to 72 hours by conventional oven-drying.

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Raymond A. Cloyd and Amy Dickinson

were processed to assess percent moisture content. After the growing medium was sterilized, samples were weighed and placed into an oven set at 60 ± 2 °C for 7 d. After the 7-d period, the weight of the samples was constant and this final weight was

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Javier Fernandez-Salvador, Bernadine C. Strik, Yanyun Zhao, and Chad E. Finn

(harvest day), 4, 7, 9, 11, and 14 in 2012, and Day 0, 4, 8, 12, 14, 18, and 21 in 2013. Percent moisture loss was calculated by subtracting each day’s weight from the previous day’s weight for each clamshell, and the average (n = 4) was calculated for each

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Don R. La Bonte and John A. Juvik

A single-kernel, sugar analysis technique was used to study the genetic relationship between morphological and metabolic traits previously associated with expression of the sugary enhancer (se) endosperm mutation in a su-1 sweet corn (Zea mays L.) background. Analysis of sucrose and total carotene content in su-1 kernel populations segregating for se showed that light-yellow kernel color was a reliable phenotypic indicator for kernels homozygous for the se gene. High levels of kernel maltose was not always indicative of su-1 se kernels in mature (55 days after pollination) kernel populations. Characteristic high levels of percent moisture in su-1 se kernels at 28 and 35 days post-pollination were identified as an expression of high sugar content. Kernels homozygous for su-1 se were also found to weigh less at maturity than su-1 Se kernels, and se was found to be partially expressed in a heterozygous condition.

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Richard N. Arteca, Carl D. Schlagnhaufer, and Jeannette M. Arteca

Four concentrations of GA, (0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg·liter–1) were applied to the root systems of seven hydroponically grown geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Empress Irene, Glacier Crimson, Sincerity, Pink Fiat, Sybil Holmes, and Mrs. Parker and P. × domesticum cv. Lavender Grand Slam) cultivars. The relative growth rate of all cultivars tested increased with GA3 treatments. In conjunction with the increase in growth rate, each of the cultivars showed a reduction in the root: shoot ratio and chlorophyll content per unit leaf area with no change in the percent moisture. These Pelargonium cultivars are genetically diverse, showing that GA3 can stimulate growth over a wide range of cultivars. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Xiuren Zhang, Guoguang Luo, Ronghui Wang, Jing Wang, and David G. Himelrick

The relationship of assimilate supply to grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry growth and development was studied with a seeded (`Kyoho') and a seedless (`Seedless Wuhehong') cultivar. A single shoot girdling between the second and third nodes below the basal cluster at the end of Stage I of berry growth shortened Stage II (the lag phase) of `Kyoho' grape berries by 10 days, and eliminated Stage II in `Seedless Wuhehong' grape berries. Double shoot girdling between the second and third nodes below the basal cluster and above the upper cluster, respectively, at the same time at the end of Stage I, advanced Stage II by 3 days in both cultivars. Normal accumulation of dry weight in the `Kyoho' grape berry is in a double sigmoidal pattern, but it became a single sigmoidal pattern in response to a single basal girdling. The highest percent moisture in berries was at 20 days after full bloom. Rapid changes in berry pectin substances lagged behind those of soluble solids and titratable acidity, and behind the onset of berry softening at veraison in `Kyoho', but not in `Seedless Wuhehong', for which the three processes were concurrent. It is suggested that the slow growth of the berries during Stage II is a result of a decrease in the rate of water accumulation on a whole berry basis and a decrease in accumulation of dry matter in the skin and flesh (pericarp) due to assimilate competition within grapevines and within berries. The relationships between levels of endogenous hormones (IAA, GA3, zeatin, zeatin riboside, and ABA) and berry growth were also studied with `Kyoho' grapes. The results showed that the slow growth of grape berries during Stage II was associated with assimilate competition between the skin-flesh (pericarp) and seeds, and with peak shifts of concentrations of IAA, GA3, zeatin and zeatin riboside. Changes in ABA levels were closely associated with ripening and senescence during late Stage III.

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Katie L. Dylewski, Amy N. Wright, Kenneth M. Tilt, and Charlene LeBleu

substrate percent moisture reached 25% ( Bailey, 2009 ; Wilkin, 2007 ). Substrate percent moisture was measured between 9:00 and 11:00 am for two replications per substrate in the 3- and 7-d flood treatments every other day during the draining period

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Amanda J. Vance, Patrick Jones, and Bernadine C. Strik

after 5 and 10 d of storage for strawberry, raspberry, and blackberry cultivars and 5, 10, 15, and 20 d of storage for blueberry cultivars. Percent moisture loss was then calculated. In addition, fruit in each clamshell were measured for firmness, skin

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Nathan J. Herrick and Raymond A. Cloyd

., Bohemia, NY), on the “initially saturated” treatments to obtain percent moisture content estimates over the course of the experiment. Daily measurements were not recorded for the “constantly saturated” treatments because 100% container capacity was