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San-Gwang Hwang, Hsiao-Chien Chao and Huey-Ling Lin

because of their short growth from seeding to harvest. Because C3 and C4 plants have been reported to respond differently to elevated temperatures, we selected one widely grown C3 summer leafy vegetable (pak choi, aka nonheading Chinese cabbage) and one

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Chandrappa Gangaiah, Amjad Ahmad, Hue V. Nguyen, Koon-Hui Wang and Theodore J.K. Radovich

information about the availability and optimal rates of K for crop growth from these algal species. The overall objective of this research was to evaluate three invasive algal species on yield and K mineral nutrition of pak choi, and then to compare one algae

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Archana P. Pant, Theodore J.K. Radovich, Nguyen V. Hue and Susan C. Miyasaka

content in pak choi and the effect has been confirmed in multiple soil types ( Pant et al., 2011 , 2009 ). Dilution rate (i.e., ratio of compost to water) has been identified as a primary factor contributing to variability in tea effect. Studies on the

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Li Huang, Wan-zhi Ye, Ting-ting Liu and Jia-shu Cao

the mechanism of plant male sterility. In a previous test-crossing study, we were able to produce the genic male-sterile AB line Bcajh97-01A/B from ‘Aijiaohuang’ chinese cabbage-pak-choi ( B . campestris ssp. chinensis ). The line showed stable

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Douglas W. Heath, Elizabeth D. Earle and Michael H. Dickson

Cold-tolerant, Ogura male-sterile, somatic hybrid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) lines were used as maternal parents in two independent introgression experiments. In one experiment, an atrazine-sensitive B. napus (aacc) somatic hybrid was crossed directly with a male-fertile pak choi (B. campestris Chinensis Group, aa) accession. Allotriploid (sac) progeny were then backcrossed to the recurrent pak choi parent. Forty-five percent of the progeny from the first backcross were determined to be diploids (aa). In the other experiment, an atrazine-resistant B. napus somatic hybrid was crossed first to a bridge line. Three additional backcross generations to Chinese cabbage (B. campestris Pekinensis Group) resulted in Chinese cabbage resistant to black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris). These materials may be useful for production of B. campestris hybrid vegetable seed.

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M.C. Palada, W. M. Cole, S.M.A Crossman, J.E. Rakocy and J.A. Kowalski

Using fish culture water and sludge may benefit vegetable production by reducing the need for high-quality irrigation water in areas where water is a limiting resource for agriculture. Fish water and sludge contains nutrients, thereby reducing the need for chemical fertilizers. A study was conducted to integrate fish (tilapia) culture with field production of Pak choi (Brassica rapa L. Chinensis). Water from tilapia culture tanks from which solids were removed (SR) and from tanks with no solid removal (NR) were applied to pak choi 2 to 3 times weekly through a drip system. These treatments were compared with sludge (FS) removed from culture tanks using three methods of irrigation. Conventional methods of fertigation (F) and band fertilizer (B) application were included as control treatments. The trial was conducted for 2 seasons. In the first season, pak choi applied with (FS) produced total yields ranging from 21 to 26 t·ha–l. Pak choi applied with fish water from tanks with (SR) and (NR) produced yields of 19 and 20 t·ha–l, respectively. Pak choi grown with (F) and (B) applications yielded 21 and 20 t·ha–l, respectively. There were no significant yield differences between the (FS) treated and (F) plots. Yield from (FS) treatment was significantly higher than all other treatments except (F). Similar results were obtained during the second season, but total yields from various treatments were 50% higher than the first season. Fish culture water and sludge are therefore good alternative sources of irrigation and fertilizer for pak choi.

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Charlene M. Grahn, Chris Benedict, Tom Thornton and Carol Miles

juncea L. and Brassica oleracea L.), pak choi ( Brassica rapa L.), kale ( Brassica oleracea L.), arugula ( Eruca sativa L. and Diplotaxis tenuifolia L.), and beet greens ( Beta vulgaris L.) ( Hardesty and Leff, 2009 ). Although the widespread

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Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan

Methanethiol (MT) is a volatile compound responsible for the unpleasant odor evolved when fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) is held under anaerobic conditions. Inductive atmospheres can develop in storage, transportation containers, or modified atmosphere packages, resulting in reduced quality. To determine if related vegetables are capable of producing MT, 12 different vegetables from the genus Brassica were cut into ready-to-eat forms. Fifty-gram samples were sealed in 500-mL glass jars and flushed with N2. After 24 h in the dark at 20 °C, headspace samples from the jars were analyzed for MT and other volatiles. Headspace concentration of MT was greatest in broccoli florets, followed by pak choi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis group) leaf blades, savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group), broccoflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group), and green and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group). Broccoli stems, kale (Brassica oleracea L., Acephala group), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L., Gemmifera group), pak choi petioles, rutabaga (Brassica napus L., Napobrassica group) root, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group) florets, Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L., Pekinensis group), and kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L., Gongylodes group) tubers produced <3% of the MT produced by broccoli florets. Green tissues appeared to have a greater capacity to produce MT than nongreen tissues. Anaerobic production of CO2 and ethanol did not relate to the vegetable's ability to produce MT. The production of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) were also induced by the anaerobic conditions. Green cabbage produced the greatest concentration of DMDS, followed by savoy cabbage and broccoli florets. Production of DMTS was similar to the pattern observed for MT, but DMDS production was not highly correlated with MT production.

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Aaron Heinrich, Shinji Kawai and Jim Myers

evaluated included broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, cabbage, napa cabbage, pak choi, kohlrabi, turnip, and rutabaga. For each crop, a clubroot susceptible cultivar was planted as a comparison. In 2015, five on-farm trials were initiated in fields

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Tanja Mucha-Pelzer, Reinhard Bauer, Ekkehard Scobel and Christian Ulrichs

-Universität zu Berlin (Germany). Pak choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) ‘Black Behi’ (East-West-Seed-Co., San Rafael, Bulacan, Philippines) plants were sown and, after 10 d, were single-planted into 10-cm diameter plastic pots in the greenhouse at 20 to