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Martín Mata-Rosas, Rosario Julieta Baltazar-García, and Victor Manuel Chávez-Avila

efficient in vitro regeneration; direct organogenesis is the preferred technique so that genetic stability is being obtained in the regenerated plantlets ( George, 1993 ). Fig. 1. ( A ) Flowers of Oncidium tigrinum ; ( B ) Seed germination on Murashige and

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Dongliang Qiu, Xiangying Wei, Shufang Fan, Dawei Jian, and Jianjun Chen

al., 2012 ; Tetsumura et al., 2008 ) and through shoot organogenesis ( Billings et al., 1988 ; Callow et al., 1989 ; Cao and Hammerschlag, 2000 ; Debnath, 2009 ; Liu et al., 2010 ; Rowland and Ogden, 1992 ). Shoot culture is the proliferation of

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Carlos Alberto Lecona-Guzmán, Sheila Reyes-Zambrano, Felipe Alonso Barredo-Pool, Miguel Abud-Archila, Joaquín Adolfo Montes-Molina, Reiner Rincón-Rosales, and Federico Antonio Gutierrez-Miceli

of axillary buds ( Fig. 2D ). Fig. 2. Histological analysis of organogenesis indirect of Agave americana L. ( A ) Callus induced from meristematic tissue at 36 weeks of culture, ( B ) formation of meristematic zones, ( C ) vascular tissue, and ( D

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Juanxu Liu, Min Deng, Richard J. Henny, Jianjun Chen, and Jiahua Xie

and Murashige, 1976 ). The occurrence of somaclonal variants or off types was high if plantlets were regenerated from variegated cultivars through indirect shoot organogenesis ( Debergh, 1975 ; Vinterhalter and Vinterhalter, 1997 ). Thus far, a method

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Gilles Galopin, Laurent Crespel, Jean C. Mauget, and Philippe Morel

activation of the entire apical zone (B 2 ); and 3) floral organogenesis with a differentiation of floral primordia (B 3 ) ( Galopin et al., 2008 , 2010 ). Fig. 1. The development sequences of the floral axis of Hydrangea macrophylla . The floral axis is

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Xiuli Shen, Vladimir Orbović, Manjul Dutt, William S. Castle, and Frederick G. Gmitter Jr.

genetic transformation through direct shoot organogenesis in citrus ( Dutt and Grosser, 2009 ; Dutt et al., 2011 ; Orbović and Grosser, 2006 ). Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish a protocol for inducing direct shoot organogenesis to

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Jericó J. Bello-Bello, Lourdes G. Iglesias-Andreu, Susana A. Avilés-Viñas, Eunice Gómez-Uc, Adriana Canto-Flick, and Nancy Santana-Buzzy

at 25 ± 2 °C. On germination (15 d), apical shoots (≈2 cm long) were cut off under sterile conditions and transferred to the fresh MS medium without growth regulators. Direct organogenesis induction. When the seedlings from the apical shoots on the

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Jude W. Grosser, Divya Kainth, and Manjul Dutt

. This study reports a more efficient method to induce tetraploids by in vitro treatment of cut stem explants from pummelo selections with colchicine followed by shoot induction through indirect organogenesis. The effect of different colchicine

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Seong Min Woo and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

adventitious shoot development. For example, regeneration via shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was obtained in African violet ( Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.) leaf and petiole explants ( Mithila et al., 2003 ) and leaf tissues of Rosa L. hybrid

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Fatemeh Haddadi, Maheran Abd Aziz, Hossein Kamaladini, and Seyed Ali Ravanfar

this study was to investigate the optimal conditions for in vitro plant regeneration via organogenesis from leaf explants of strawberry using combinations of TDZ and BAP. The use of zeatin as an adenine-type cytokinin to induce adventitious shoot