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Chia Ting Han, Yu Sung, and Ming-Tung Hsueh

conditions are favorable for seedling establishment ( Egley, 1989 ). Hardseeds are seeds that develop physical dormancy (PY), that is, a water-impermeable seed or fruit coat, during maturation development and are commonly found in species of Fabaceae ( Baskin

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Theodore P. McAvoy and Joshua H. Freeman

Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Painter, VA during 2009–11. Table 2. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) concentrations (μg·cm −3 ) under virtually impermeable film (VIF) and totally impermeable film (TIF) mulch at labeled

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Sanjeev K. Bangarwa, Jason K. Norsworthy, Edward E. Gbur, and John D. Mattice

., 2006 ). In earlier experiments, virtually impermeable film (VIF) mulch retained higher concentrations of fumigants (methyl bromide and 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin) compared with conventionally used low-density polyethylene mulch (LDPE) ( Santos

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Husein A. Ajwa, Rachael E. Goodhue, Oleg Daugovish, Zahanghir Kabir, and Steven A. Fennimore

's fumigant use regulations, the use of drip irrigation to apply fumigants and the use of specialized tarps such as VIF during fumigation reduce the required buffer zones ( Ajwa et al., 2002 ). VIF differs from a HDPE tarp because VIF has additional gas-impermeable

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Bielinski M. Santos, James P. Gilreath, and Timothy N. Motis

Two field trials were conducted in Bradenton, Fla., to determine the effect of reduced methyl bromide plus chloropicrin (MBr + Pic 67:33 v/v) rates applied under two types of virtually impermeable films (VIF) on nutsedges (Cyperus spp.) and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus spp.) control, and `Capistrano' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) crop yield. MBr + Pic rates were 0, 88, 175, and 350 lb/acre. Mulch types were low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch, Hytibar VIF, and Bromostop VIF. Results showed that there were no differences on weed and nematode control, and bell pepper fruit yield between the two types of VIF. Two exponential models characterized the nutsedge responses to MBr + Pic rates with LDPE mulch and VIF, with weed densities declining as MBr + Pic rates increased. Reducing MBr + Pic rates by one-half (175 lb/acre) under VIF provided similar nutsedge control as the full-rate (350 lb/acre) with LDPE mulch. Similar results were observed with stunt nematode, where the most effective control occurred with VIF. Bell pepper yield with LDPE mulch responded linearly to increased MBr + Pic rates. However, a logarithmic model described the response of pepper yields to the fumigant rates under VIF. The application rate of this fumigant could be effectively reduced to 25% of the commercial rate (350 lb/acre) under either VIF, without causing significant bell pepper yield losses.

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Bielinski M. Santos, James P. Gilreath, and Timothy N. Motis

Two field trials were conducted to determine the effect of reduced methyl bromide plus chloropicrin (MBr + Pic 67:33 v/v) rates applied under two types of virtually impermeable films (VIF) on nutsedges (Cyperus spp.) and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus spp.) control, and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) crop yield. A split-plot design with six replications was established, with MBr + Pic rates in the main plots and mulch types as subplots. MBr + Pic rates were 0, 88, 175, and 350 lb/acre. Mulch types were low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch, Hytibar VIF, and Bromostop VIF. Results showed that there were no differences on weed and nematode control, and bell pepper fruit yield between the two types of VIF. Two exponential models characterized the nutsedge responses to MBr + Pic rates with LDPE mulch and VIF, with weed densities declining as MBr + Pic rates increased. Reducing MBr + Pic rates by one-half (175 lb/acre) under VIF provided similar nutsedge control as the full-rate (350 lb/acre) with LDPE mulch. Similar results were observed with stunt nematode, where the most effective control occurred with VIF. Bell pepper yield with LDPE mulch responded linearly to increased MBr + Pic rates. However, a logarithmic model described the response of pepper yields to the fumigant rates under VIF. The application rate of this fumigant could be effectively reduced to 25% of the commercial rate (350 lb/acre) under either VIF, without causing significant bell pepper yield losses.

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Hector E. Pérez

-physiological, and combinational ( Baskin and Baskin, 2001 , 2004 ; Fenner and Thompson, 2005 ). According to Baskin and Baskin (2001) , seeds with physical dormancy possess fruit coats (pericarps) or seedcoats (testa) that are water impermeable. The nature of the

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W. Stienswat, L. H. Pollar, and W. F. Campbell

Abstract

We investigated the areas of water penetration and the anatomical structures of hilar regions of permeable and impermeable seed coats of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Results indicate that water can enter permeable seeds through the hilum, raphe, and micropyle. In impermeable seeds water cannot pass through any of these areas. Anatomical data confirm that there were no structural differences in the testae of permeable and impermeable seeds, but a noticeable difference was apparent in the hilar region. In permeable seeds the palisade layer did not connect evenly in the hilar canal. By contrast, the hilar canals of impermeable seeds had connected palisade layers that were uniformly coated with a cuticular layer. Micropylar openings were clearly visible in permeable seeds, but these openings were occluded and well covered with cuticle in impermeable seeds. Visible differences were evident in the raphe.

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Michael R. Evans, Andrew K. Koeser, Guihong Bi, Susmitha Nambuthiri, Robert Geneve, Sarah Taylor Lovell, and J. Ryan Stewart

container walls tended to have the highest water requirement and the shortest irrigation interval. Containers that were relatively impermeable to water, such as rice hull and bioplastic containers, had water loss rates similar to their plastic controls and

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J. Dionne, M. Laganière, and Y. Desjardins

Extensive winterkill of golf greens is a major problem in northern climates. In this study, the efficiency of several protective covering materials used to shelter Poa annua golf greens from winter damages was evaluated over 2 years. The bioclimatological environment under these protective covers was studied at crown level and at 5, 10, and 20 cm under the ground Treatments (permeable and impermeable covers, curled wood Excelsior mat, straw mulch protected by an impermeable cover, geotextile material with an impermeable cover, and air space under an impermeable cover) were compared to a control treatment without protection. Results indicate that temperature profile was strongly influenced by both winter protection covers and snow depth Temperatures at crown level were stable and just below 0C under plots covered with a significant amount of snow. However, temperatures varied considerably, when snow cover was <15 cm. Snow thermal conductivity was increased by periods of rain during the winter. Impermeable covers minimized the negative effect of this change in the insulation properties of the snow cover by limiting temperature fluctuations at the crown level. Temperature profiles under permeable covers were similar to profiles observed on control plots. Temperature profiles were comparable for 5 and 10 cm air space treatments and were not significantly different when compared to impermeable covers spread directly on the turf. Straw with an impermeable cover and Excelsior mats maintained crown level temperatures at >0C and the incidence of disease was higher under these highly insulative materials.