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Yun Kong, Devdutt Kamath, and Youbin Zheng

Institute of Health). Hypocotyl length, diameter, and color; cotyledon maximum blade length, maximum blade width, area, and color; and petiole length were determined from the scanned images. For hypocotyl and cotyledon color measurements, the detailed

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Yoshiaki Kitaya, Genhua Niu, Toyoki Kozai, and Maki Ohashi

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Summer-green) plug transplants were grown for 3 weeks under 16 combinations of four levels (100, 150, 200, and 300 μmol·m-2·s-1) of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), two photoperiods (16 and 24 h), and two levels of CO2 (400 and 800 μmol·mol-1) in growth chambers maintained at an air temperature of 20 ±2 °C. As PPF increased, dry mass (DM), percent DM, and leaf number increased, while ratio of shoot to root dry mass (S/R), ratio of leaf length to leaf width (LL/LW), specific leaf area, and hypocotyl length decreased. At the same PPF, DM was increased by 25% to 100% and 10% to 100% with extended photoperiod and elevated CO2 concentration, respectively. Dry mass, percent DM, and leaf number increased linearly with daily light integral (DLI, the product of PPF and photoperiod), while S/R, specific leaf area, LL/LW and hypocotyl length decreased as DLI increased under each CO2 concentration. Hypocotyl length was influenced by PPF and photoperiod, but not by CO2 concentration. Leaf morphology, which can be reflected by LL/LW, was substantially influenced by PPF at 100 to 200 μmol·m-2·s-1, but not at 200 to 300 μmol·m-2·s-1. At the same DLI, the longer photoperiod promoted growth under the low CO2 concentration, but not under the high CO2 concentration. Longer photoperiod and/or higher CO2 concentration compensated for a low PPF.

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Nichole F. Edelman, Bethany A. Kaufman, and Michelle L. Jones

concentration-dependent, and hypocotyl length decreases (in the dark) with increasing ethylene or ACC concentration until the response is saturated ( Bleecker et al., 1988 ; Goeschl and Kays, 1975 ; Lanahan et al., 1994 ). Clark et al. (2001) used the

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Po-Lung Chia and Chieri Kubota

coming into direct contact and exposure with the soil. However, the tomato graft union is often below the cotyledons of rootstock seedlings, especially when rootstock axillary shoot growth needs to be avoided. Longer hypocotyl lengths of rootstock would

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Nichole F. Edelman and Michelle L. Jones

arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) ( Alexander and Grierson, 2002 ; Binder et al., 2004 ). In dark-grown seedlings, hypocotyl length decreases at increasing concentrations of ethylene or ACC, the immediate precursor to ethylene. This component of the triple

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Ricardo Hernández and Chieri Kubota

to eighth true-leaf stage (26 or 37 d after sowing). The number of growing days varied between the two repetitions as a result of seasonal environmental conditions. Plant height, hypocotyl length, and epicotyl length were measured using a ruler. Stem

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Joshua R. Gerovac, Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez

mustard, 10, 15, and 14 d after sowing, respectively. Ten seedlings of each species were randomly selected and measured to determine HL, LA, and total chlorophyll ( a + b ) content (i.e., RCC) for each SS LED treatment. Hypocotyl length was measured from

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Zhengnan Yan, Long Wang, Jiaxi Dai, Yufeng Liu, Duo Lin, and Yanjie Yang

., 2020 ). Lower PPFD or shorter photoperiod led to longer hypocotyl length ( Ji et al., 2020 ), smaller leaf area ( Yan et al., 2019 ), lower shoot fresh weight ( Wei et al., 2019 ), less chlorophyll content ( Wei et al., 2020 ), and lower seedling

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Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, Qinglu Ying, and Youbin Zheng

. Both Samuolienė; et al. (2013) and Gerovac et al. (2016) found that hypocotyl length (HL) generally decreased with increasing LI, although results were not consistent across all LI × genotype combinations. Gerovac et al. (2016) speculated that

Open access

Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, and Youbin Zheng

measure each of the following parameters: hypocotyl length (HL), hypocotyl diameter (HD), cotyledon dry weight (CDW), cotyledon leaf area (LA), relative chlorophyll content (RCC), and aboveground FW and DW. Different plants were used for each parameter