A partial diallel design was used to investigate the inheritance of tolerance to terbacil herbicide in cultivated strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. Two tolerant cultivars, `Honeoye' and `Earliglow', two moderately tolerant cultivars, `Lester' and `Allstar', and two susceptible cultivars, `Red Chief' and `Guardian' were used as parents to create populations that segregated for tolerance to the herbicide. Tolerance rankings of the populations closely coincided with expected rankings based on the published tolerance levels of parental cultivars. `Honeoye' and `Earliglow' derived populations had the highest average tolerance ratings, while `Guardian' derived populations had the lowest tolerance ratings. Heritability was estimated at h2 = 0.50, indicating that significant progress in increasing the tolerance of new cultivars to terbacil can be achieved through traditional recurrent selection procedures. General and specific combining abilities suggest that the tolerant cultivars in this study may be fixed in their tolerance and that increased mean tolerance will be most apparent in progenies combining tolerant and susceptible cultivars. As such, a broader pool of germplasm may be needed to develop cultivars that are more tolerant than those in this study. Chemical names: terbacil (3-tert-butyl-5-chloro-6-methyluracil)
Orville C. Baldos, Joseph DeFrank, and Glenn Sakamoto
postemergence herbicide tolerance was conducted after a greenhouse study by Baldos (2009) identified fluazifop-p-butyl as safe for grassy weed control in tropical fimbry. The field study was conducted from July to Sept. 2008 at the University of Hawaii
Richard L. Fery and Howard F. Harrison Jr.
Experiments were developed to study the inheritance of the high level of tolerance to the herbicide bentazon exhibited by the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivar Santaka. Parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations of the cross `Santaka' × `Keystone Resistant Giant' were evaluated for injury in a greenhouse test using bentazon at a rate of 4.5 kg·ha-1 (1.1 kg×ha-1 is the rate recommended for most applications). Additionally, parental and F1 populations were evaluated for injury under field conditions using sequential bentazon applications of 4.5, 4.5, 6.75, and 9.0 kg·ha-1. A single, dominant gene determined tolerance. F1 hybrid plants (heterozygous at the locus conditioning tolerance) exhibited a high level of tolerance under field conditions. Results of the greenhouse test suggested a possible cytoplasmic involvement in the expression of the tolerance gene, but the results of the field test provided strong evidence that cytoplasm does not play a significant role. We propose that this gene be designated Bentazon tolerance and symbolized Bzt. Chemical name used: 3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon).
Vamsgita Kolasani and John Masiunas
Eastern black nightshade is one of the problematic weeds in vegetables and soybeans in the Midwest. It is representative of a rapidly growing complex of broadleaf weeds where herbicide resistance would be expected to occur. Eastern black nightshade calli lines that are resistant and susceptible to acifluorfen were maintained on the medium without the herbicide. After two years, these lines were tested for tolerance to acifluorfen and paraquat. Tolerance to acifluorfen was maintained in the previously selected lines. The lines were also cross tolerant to paraquat. Plants were regenerated from these calli lines and grown in the greenhouse. 14C-acifluorfen and 14C-paraquat uptake, translocation, and metabolism were studied.
Jerald K. Pataky, Michael D. Meyer, Joseph D. Bollman, Chris M. Boerboom, and Martin M. Williams II
if alleles affecting herbicide tolerance and sensitivity (e.g., CYP alleles) were associated with differences in levels of injury to sweet corn hybrids in herbicide trials coordinated by the University of Wisconsin in 2005 and 2006. Materials and
Richard L. Fery and Howard F. Harrison Jr.
Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the genetic relationship between bentazon tolerance exhibited by the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars Bohemian Chili and Santaka, and to evaluate the importance of cytoplasmic factors in expression of the tolerance in `Bohemian Chili.' Greenhouse evaluation of parental and F2 populations of the cross `Santaka' × `Bohemian Chili' indicated that the major dominant gene conditioning bentazon tolerance in `Bohemian Chili' is probably the Bzt gene that conditions bentazon tolerance in `Santaka' or a gene closely linked to the Bzt locus. Field evaluation of F1 and F2 progeny populations of the cross `Bohemian Chili' × `Sweet Banana' in both `Bohemian Chili' and `Sweet Banana' cytoplasms demonstrated that cytoplasmic factors do not affect the expression of the bentazon tolerance gene in `Bohemian Chili.' We conclude that `Santaka' and `Bohemian Chili' are equally satisfactory sources of a bentazon tolerance gene for use in pepper breeding programs. Chemical name used: 3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon).
Christian M. Baldwin, Eugene K. Blythe, A. Douglas Brede, Jami J. Mayer, and R. Golembiewski
suitable herbicide tolerance in newly emerging turfgrass species so as to minimize weed pressure during establishment ( Hoiberg et al., 2012 ; Venner, 2011 ). This is the first reported research in the literature describing the effect of a fall application
Howard F. Harrison Jr. and Philip D. Dukes
Four sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] clones were evaluated for metribuzin tolerance in greenhouse and field experiments. W-262 exhibited metribuzin response similar to the highly tolerant clone Tinian (U.S.P.I. 153655). SC 1149-19 was highly sensitive to metribuzin, and the commercial cultivar Jewel was intermediate in tolerance. Due to its more desirable horticultural characteristics and higher yields, W-262 is superior to Tinian as a source of metribuzin tolerance in sweetpotato breeding. Chemical name used: 4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one (metribuzin).
Clinton J. Hunnicutt, Andrew W. MacRae, and Vance M. Whitaker
With the reduction in the availability of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant for Florida strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) culture, annual broadleaf weeds are expected to become increasingly troublesome to control. Recent studies show that along with the new fumigant systems, separate but complementary herbicide applications throughout the growing season will also be a necessity for acceptable weed control. The purpose of the study reported herein was to evaluate the impacts of multiple rates of the herbicide clopyralid on the growth and fruit production of four annual strawberry cultivars. Two greenhouse trials were conducted, evaluating the application of varying rates of clopyralid as a directed spray to well-established, mature plants of ‘Strawberry Festival’, ‘Florida Radiance’, ‘Treasure’, and Winterstar™ ‘FL 05–107’. Leaf production, leaf malformation, and marketable yield were evaluated to determine negative effects because of the physiological herbicidal effects, phytotoxic herbicidal effects, or both of clopyralid. Results from these studies showed that when clopyralid was applied at the maximum labeled rate of 3 oz/acre, less than 12% leaf malformation was observed among all cultivars, and marketable yield exhibited a linear increase as the rate of clopyralid increased, possibly due to a reduction in canopy coverage leading to more effective pollination.
J. B. Masiunas and S. C. Weller
Terbacil at 0, 0.28, 0.56, 0.84, and 1.12 kg·ha−1 was applied immediately after planting to strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch.) cultivars Surecrop, Honeoye, Guardian, Redchief, and Delite. Plant vigor and number of mother plants were reduced by all herbicide rates >0.28 kg·ha−1. ‘Delite’ plants were less vigorous at the time of planting than other cultivars. There were no differences between cultivars in number of rooted runners, but terbacil at rates >0.28 kg·ha−1 reduced runner rooting. Yield the year following planting was dependent on terbacil rate and cultivar. Vigorous cultivars (i.e., ‘Redchief) had superior yields. Terbacil at 0.28 kg·ha−1 was safe when applied to newly planted strawberries on soils with organic matter content of at least 1.0%. Chemical name used: 5-chloro-3-(l,l-dimethylethyl)-6-methyl-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione (terbacil).