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James C. Sellmer, Kathleen M. Kelley, Susan Barton, and David J. Suchanic

Attendees at the 2001 Philadelphia Flower Show participated in an interactive-quiz-formatted survey on touch-screen computers to determine their knowledge and use of plant health care (PHC) and integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Participants answered 15 questions in three categories: 1) PHC practices (criteria for proper plant selection, correct planting practices, and reasons for mulching and pruning); 2) IPM practices (insect identification, plant and pest monitoring, and maintenance of records on pests found and treatments applied to their landscape plants); and 3) demographic and sociographic questions to aid in characterizing the survey population. Over half of the participants (58%) were interested in gardening and a majority (77%) were interested in protecting the environment. Most participants (66%) were between 36 and 60 years of age with a mean age of 47 years, 76% lived in and owned a single-family home, and greater than half (56%) had never purchased professional landscape services. Most recognized PHC criteria for proper site selection, although not all environmental site characteristics were recognized as being equally important. Nearly half (49%) identified the correct planting practice among the choices offered; while an equal number of participants chose among the several improper practices listed. Although reasons for mulching were properly identified by the respondents, excess mulching around trees was considered a proper planting practice by over 39% of the participants. When questioned about IPM practices, a majority reported that they identify pests prior to treating them (71%) and that they scouted their landscapes (82%). However, only 21% kept records of the pests that they had found and the treatments that they applied for those pests. Participants' responses were further examined using cluster analysis in order to characterize the participants and identify meaningful consumer knowledge segments for targeting future extension programming. Three distinct segments were identified: 1) horticulturally savvy (69% of the participants), 2) part-time gardener (25% of the participants), and 3) horticulturally challenged (6%). At least 47% of the horticulturally savvy and part-time gardeners correctly answered plant health care questions (44% of the total survey participants). These two segments included more individuals who were interested in gardening and protecting the environment and are potential targets for future PHC and IPM extension education programs. In contrast the horticulturally challenged recorded no interest in or opinion on gardening or protecting the environment. It is apparent that a majority of consumers are learning and employing PHC and IPM concepts. Proper site selection, planting practices, and mulching along with record keep- ing and pest identification proficiency remain key educational areas to be developed. Although not all gardeners are well versed in all subject matter, a basic knowledge of PHC and IPM is being demonstrated.

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Derrick R. Stowell, J. Mark Fly, William E. Klingeman, Caula A. Beyl, Angela J. Wozencroft, Douglas L. Airhart, and P.J. Snodgrass

Horticultural therapy (HT) is an allied health profession that uses people–plant connections to enhance health care outcomes and improve well-being ( Ascencio, 2018 ; Haller et al., 2019 ; Im et al., 2018 ). Other allied health professions

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Tong Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Qi Qiao, Wei Liu, and Xiaogai Hou

omega-3 fatty acids. As an alternative source of omega-3 fatty acids, P. ostii has different uses in many fields, such as the health care, food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries ( Han et al., 2016 ). Although seed oil of P. ostii has

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Lyle E. Craker and Zoë Gardner

The passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994 made the use of supplements more acceptable in the U.S., increasing demand for botanicals to use in health care and maintenance. These botanicals, primarily medicinal and aromatic plants, currently represent about 25% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S. Although much of the market for botanicals traditionally has been met through collection of plants in the wild, enhanced cultivation of several species will be essential to bring standardized, quality plant materials into the marketplace.

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M.L. Witt, W.M. Fountain, R.L. Geneve, and D.L. Olszowy

America the Beautiful and Urban and Community Forestry grant programs, part of the expanded Forestry Title of the 1990 Farm Bill, authorized funding to encourage citizen involvement in creating and supporting long-term and sustained urban and community forestry programs. U.K. Woody Ornamental scientists and the KY Division of Forestry Urban Forestry Coordinator planned and implemented the following educational programs to this end: 1) comprehensive training manual on Managing Trees in the Urban Environment, including a guide for the care and protection of trees, grant application, and managing of volunteers; 2) three publications on small, medium-sized, and large trees for urban spaces; 3) interactive hypertext version of tree selector publications; 4) statewide workshops on Trees in Communities; 5) annual statewide Urban Forestry Short Course; 5) Plant Health Care and Hazard Trees workshops for arborists. The comprehensive program brings city planners, government personnel, public work's personnel, arborists, builders and developers, horticulturists and landscape architects, tree board members, homeowners' associations, Master Gardeners, and other community volunteers together to support quality programming for preservation and enhancement of valuable natural resource of trees.

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Timothy K. Broschat and Monica L. Elliott

® (Plant Health Care, Pittsburgh) 6N–1.3P–5K incorporated into the top 6 inches of backfill at the label rate of 170 g per palm (PHC Palm Saver with microbes); 6) PHC Palm Saver 6N–1.3P–5K without microbes applied as in treatment 5 at 170 g per palm (PHC

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Rosalie J. Kelley, Tina M. Waliczek, and F. Alice Le Duc

public health implications; for example, greater health care utilization and mortality would be especially problematic for this relatively young, working age population ( Falvo et al., 2012 ). Upon return from deployment, veterans often suffer with mental

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Margaret W. Kirika, Jane W. Kahia, Lucien N. Diby, Eliud M. Njagi, Colombe Dadjo, and Christophe Kouame

Due to either limited availability or affordability of pharmaceutical medicines, two-third of the world population (mainly in the developing countries) rely entirely on medicinal plants as their primary source of health care ( Ayyanar and

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Mary H. Meyer, Rhoda Burrows, Karen Jeannette, Celeste Welty, and Aaron R. Boyson

gardens: Effects of training and volunteer research on adoption of biological control HortTechnology 14 149 154 Sellmer, J. Kelley, K. Barton, S. Suchanic, D. 2003 Assessing consumer knowledge and use of landscape plant health care and integrated pest

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Cynthia Haynes, Denise Ellsworth, Sarah Ellis Williams, Celeste Welty, and Karen Jeannette

use in home gardens: Effects of training and volunteer research on adoption of biological control HortTechnology 14 149 154 Sellmer, J.C. Kelley, L.M. Suchanic, D.J. 2003 An interactive survey to assess consumer knowledge about landscape plant health