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Hiroaki Ito, Masaki Ochiai, Hiroaki Kato, Katsuhiro Shiratake, Daigo Takemoto, Shungo Otagaki, and Shogo Matsumoto

use ALSV vectors for gene silencing of the endogenous genes in rose, we first inoculated wtALSV to wild rose at several seedling stages. In apple, the cotyledons of seeds just after germination are regarded as the most effective tissues for performing

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Zongrang Liu, Ralph Scorza, Jean-Michel Hily, Simon W. Scott, and Delano James

resistance limited to a narrow range of closely related isolates ( Baulcombe, 1996a ). RNA-mediated resistance is homology-dependent and related to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) ( Baulcombe, 1996b ). PTGS is marked by high rates of transgene

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Kai Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Ma, Yuexue Liu, He Li, Hongyan Dai, and Zhihong Zhang

number of internodes. There were some differences with our studies. First, transgenic line heights of our study were more shorter because RNAi was more efficient than antisense RNA in gene silencing. GA20-ox of apple was encoding by three genes. There

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Kisung Ko, Susan K. Brown, John L. Norelli, and Herb S. Aldwinckle

Seven nptII and gus transgenic lines of the apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) rootstock Malling 7 (M.7) were examined by glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical testing and a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These lines had different amounts of neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII). The amounts of NPTII among lines was positively correlated with the ability of the transgenic lines to regenerate in the presence of kanamycin, paromomycin, or geneticin. Regenerants derived from transgenic lines also varied greatly in GUS expression. The apical portion of regenerant stem tissues had stronger GUS staining than the basal portion of stem. All regenerated tissue of T1, a transgenic line originally classified as a uniform GUS staining line, showed non-GUS staining, while the regenerated tissues of chimeric transgenic lines showed nonstaining, chimeric staining, or uniform GUS staining, indicating the potential to select uniform GUS staining lines from chimeras. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated the gus gene was present in GUS negative (nonstaining) lines. Negative PCR results with primers derived from vir G of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and failure to isolate A. tumefaciens from M.7 transgenics indicated that PCR and GUS staining results were not due to A. tumefaciens. A modified PCR methylation assay (MPMA) indicated that methylation of cytosines of the CCGG site in the gus gene, and in the border between the CaMV35S promoter and the gus gene, was positively correlated with complete gus gene silencing (nonstaining lines). However, the MPMA indicated that methylation was not always associated with variable GUS expression, suggesting that chimeric staining could be due to a mixture of transformed and nontransformed cells in some transgenic lines.

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Shanshan Seng, Jian Wu, Jiahui Liang, Fengqin Zhang, Qiuyan Yang, Junna He, and Mingfang Yi

. Silencing of GhAGPL1 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was performed as described previously ( Zhong et al., 2014 ). Cormels with 6 to 10 mm in diameter were used for VIGS assays. First, a 313-base pair (bp) specific fragment of GhAGPL1 were

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Robert J. Griesbach, Ronald M. Beck, John Hammond, and John R. Stommel

et al., 2005 ). Chalcone syntase gene ( Chs ) was the only anthocyanin biosynthetic gene with differential expression. The downregulation of Chs appears to be mediated by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Plants showing the Star floral

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Jean-Michel Hily, Michel Ravelonandro, Vern Damsteegt, Carole Bassett, Cesar Petri, Zongrang Liu, and Ralph Scorza

phenotype. These studies have provided evidence that PDR in many cases is based on RNA silencing, named posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants and RNA interference (RNAi) in animal systems ( Hannon, 2002 ; Kooter et al., 1999 ; Matzke et al

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Robert Griesbach and Ron Beck

Differences in structural gene expression are responsible for a wide range of responses from human cancer to patterned flowers. Gene silencing is one of the ways in which gene expression is controlled. We have developed a model system to study gene silencing using a gene silencing mutation in Petunia ×hybrida (Star mutation) and the ability of certain viruses to reverse the silencing mutation. This model system was used to characterize how the Star flower color pattern was controlled.

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Tingting Zhao, Jingkang Hu, Yingmei Gao, Ziyu Wang, Yufang Bao, Xiaochun Zhang, Huanhuan Yang, Dongye Zhang, Jingbin Jiang, He Zhang, Jingfu Li, Qingshan Chen, and Xiangyang Xu

gene and determine the relationship between SL-ZH13 expression and salt tolerance ability of tomato plants, we applied virus-induced gene silencing technology to decrease the expression level of SL-ZH13 in tomato plants and analyzed changes in the

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Xiaohong Wang, Bishun Ye, Xiangpeng Kang, Ting Zhou, and Tongfei Lai

-associated secondary metabolites are also rarely reported. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an attractive reverse-genetics tool for the study of gene function in plants. Upon viral infection, plants use their innate RNAi-mediated defense machinery to target the