plants can be high mortality of plantlets after transferring to exvitro conditions ( Crane and Hughes, 1990 ; Shim et al., 2003 ). Various methods such as ventilation ( Cui et al., 2000 ; Shim et al., 2003 ), lids permeable to water vapor ( Ghashghaie
not easy to root and acclimatize, the rooting phase has been successfully performed exvitro and the plants then survived when planted in the field ( Benmahioul et al., 2012 ; Saiju, 2005 ). The present work has been conducted to develop an efficient
performance through adjustment of the media nutrient content, and developing a method of exvitro rooting. An additional objective was to evaluate retipping of recently micropropagated plants as a method of obtaining large quantities of clones for commercial
Exvitro acclimatization is an important stage during in vitro plant propagation, because it deals with gradual transition from the artificial culture conditions to the natural living environment. In the acclimatization stage it is necessary to
the shoot multiplication, and to evaluate the effects of auxins on exvitro rooting of microcuttings in Aglaonema .
Materials and Methods
Plant material and culture conditions.
Stock plants of Aglaonema ‘White Tip’ were grown in a 70
There is interest in micropropagation of C. sativa for the production of uniform, vigorous, and pathogen-free clones ( Adhikary et al. 2021 ; Chandra et al. 2020 ). However, hyperhydricity, culture decline, and poor exvitro rooting have limited the
combinations could improve the efficiency of this technique. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of different cryoprotectants on germination and seedling development of J. curcas in vitro and exvitro. Material and Methods Location
manipulation. Exvitro establishment protocols were also examined to ensure viable protocols exist to propagate plants or for commercial production. Material and Methods Plant material and culture conditions. Apical and axillary bud explants were used to
acclimatization capacity were observed among genotypes when plants were transferred to exvitro conditions. Similarly, many other horticultural plants species are readily micropropagated in vitro but exhibit poor acclimatization and subsequent survival exvitro
Low conversion rates of somatic embryos and poor early growth of somatic embryo-derived plantlets of some forest trees may be related as much to prolonged maintenance in vitro as to basic developmental problems with the embryos. We tested ex vitro conversion as an alternative method for producing the rare North American pyramid magnolia (Magnolia pyramidata Bartram) plantlets from somatic embryos. Tissue cultures were initiated from immature seed explants of pyramid magnolia. Immature seeds collected from each of three trees formed proembryogenic masses (PEMs) following 7 to 10 weeks of continuous culture on semisolid medium containing 9.0 μm 2,4-D, 1.1 μm BA, and 1 g casein hydrolysate/liter. PEMs transferred to semisolid medium without plant growth regulators produced somatic embryos that germinated following transfer to the same medium without casein hydrolysate. Conversion frequency to plantlets was higher and plantlets were more vigorous when germinants were transferred directly to potting mix and grown in a humidifying chamber instead of being maintained in plantlet development medium in test tubes. Chemical names used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA).