‘Honeycrisp’ apples are susceptible to develop the physiological disorder bitter pit. This disorder typically develops during storage, but preharvest lesion can also develop. ‘Honeycrisp’ is also chilling sensitive, and fruit is typically held at 10–20 °C after harvest for up to 7 days to reduce development of chilling injury (CI) during subsequent cold storage. This temperature conditioning period followed by a lower storage temperature (2–4 °C) reduces CI risk but can exacerbate bitter pit development. Bitter pit development can be impacted in other apple cultivars by the use of controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and/or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Studies were conducted to evaluate efficacy of CA and/or 1-MCP to manage ‘Honeycrisp’ bitter pit development. Apples from multiple lots, obtained at commercial harvest, were held at 10 °C for 7 days and then cooled to 3 °C. Half the fruit was exposed to 42 μmol·L−1 1-MCP the day of receipt while held at 10 °C. Fruit were stored in air or CA (3 kPa O2, 0.5 kPa CO2 for 2 days, then 1.5 kPa O2, 0.5 kPa CO2) established after 1 day at 10 °C or after 7 days at 10 °C plus 2 days at 3 °C. Fruit treated with 1-MCP and/or stored in CA developed less bitter pit compared with untreated fruit stored in air, and bitter pit incidence was lowest for 1-MCP-treated fruit with CA established during conditioning. Development of diffuse flesh browning (DFB) and cavities, reported to occur during ‘Honeycrisp’ CA storage, was observed in some lots. Incidence of these disorders was not enhanced by establishing CA 2 days compared with 9 days after harvest. 1-MCP and CA slowed peel color change, loss of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), and reduced ethylene production and respiration rate. The results indicate potential for the postharvest management of bitter pit development in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple through use of 1-MCP and/or CA storage.
James P. Mattheis, David R. Rudell, and Ines Hanrahan
Kevin Laskowski and Emily Merewitz
good indicator for the effects of ethylene regulatory treatments on annual bluegrass acclimation and survival of ice stress. We hypothesized that ethylene inhibition-induced improvements in annual bluegrass recovery from ice stress could be associated
Yusuke Kubo, Shinobu Satoh, Haruka Suzuki, Toshinori Kinoshita, and Nobuyoshi Nakajima
During the transport of vegetables, it is important to maintain quality. The cotyledons of Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus) sprouts curl during transport, lowering quality. It is known that ethylene causes the leaf curling of some true leaves by promoting cell growth on the adaxial side (epinasty); however, the mechanism of cotyledon curling is unknown. We investigated the effect of ethylene on cotyledon curling of Japanese radish sprouts. Curling was promoted by exogenous treatment with ethylene and repressed by treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene perception. Microscopic observation of ethylene-exposed curled cotyledons and normal cotyledons indicates that ethylene did not affect cell number but did inhibit transverse (lateral) cell growth on the abaxial side of the cotyledons, causing cotyledon curling through differential growth. Ethylene inhibition of cell growth on the abaxial side of leaves has not been reported before. We show a new mechanism responsible for curling.
Monique Guis, Rinaldo Botondi, Mohamed Ben-Amor, Ricardo Ayub, Mondher Bouzayen, Jean-Claude Pech, and Alain Latché
Transgenic Cantaloupe Charentais melons (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis Naud. `Védrantais') exhibiting strong inhibition of ethylene production were used as a model to discriminate between ethylene-regulated and ethylene-independent ripening pathways. Compared to wild-type fruit, transgenic fruit did not undergo significant yellowing of the rind and softening of the flesh. However, these effects were completely reversed by treating transgenic fruit with 50 μL·L-1 exogenous ethylene. Pigmentation of the flesh occurred early before the onset of the climacteric and was thus unaffected by ethylene inhibition in transgenic fruit. Total soluble solids accumulated at the same rate in both types of fruit until 38 days after pollination when wild-type fruit abscissed. However, as ethylene-inhibited fruit failed to develop a peduncular abscission zone, they remained attached to the plant and accumulated higher amounts of sugars, mainly sucrose. Harvesting transgenic fruit resulted in a small but significant increase of internal ethylene associated with softening of the flesh.
Jian-rong Feng, Wan-peng Xi, Wen-hui Li, Hai-nan Liu, Xiao-fang Liu, and Xiao-yan Lu
( Gonzalez-Agüero et al., 2009 ), extraction techniques ( Solis-Solis et al., 2007 ), ethylene inhibition ( Botondi et al., 2003 ), and storage conditions ( Defilippi et al., 2009 ) on apricot aroma evaluation. Although the effect of cultivars on aroma
Mengmeng Gu, James A. Robbins, and Curt R. Rom
Ziziphus rotundifolia in response to progressive water deficit stress Tree Physiol. 21 705 715 Botondi, R. DeSantis, D. Bellincontro, A. Vizovitis, K. Mencarelli, F. 2003 Influence of ethylene
Mason T. MacDonald, Rajasekaran R. Lada, Jeff Hoyle, and A. Robin Robinson
the membrane stability is the result of ethylene inhibition, possibility promoted as a result of Ambiol pretreatment, deferring senescence. Ambiol is known to inhibit ethylene production ( Rajasekaran and Blake, 1999 ). A buildup of ethylene under
Cai-Hong Jia, Ju-Hua Liu, Zhi-Qiang Jin, Qiu-Ju Deng, Jian-Bin Zhang, and Bi-Yu Xu
of banana fruits was kept at 25 °C and allowed to ripen naturally. For ethylene treatment, the group of banana fruits was treated with 100 μL·L −1 ethylene in an airtight container for 24 h at 25 °C to initiate ripening. For ethylene inhibition
Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell
fruit Postharvest Biol. Technol. 59 219 226 Jung, S.K. James, H. Lee, J. Nock, J.F. Watkins, C.B. 2010 Effects of ethylene inhibition on development of flesh browning in apple fruit Acta Hort. 877 549 554 Kweon, H.-J. Kang, I.-K. Kim, M.-J. Lee, J. Moon
Chikako Honda, Hideo Bessho, Mari Murai, Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Kazuyuki Abe, Masato Wada, Yuki Moriya-Tanaka, Hiroko Hayama, and Miho Tatsuki
and anthocyanin accumulation at harvest in fruits of these cultivars to which 1-MCP had been applied to assess the effect of ethylene inhibition on the strength of pigmentation. Second, we examined changes in anthocyanin accumulation and ethylene