) reviewed the evidence for this well-known “dilution effect.” Although their review has been cited over 180 times (60 times from 2000 on), few mentions of the dilution effect contain a reference, suggesting that the effect is widely regarded as common
concentration in the leaves of plants exposed to the longer light period and lower irradiance may have been the result of a “dilution” effect as evidenced by the greater storage root and foliage production among these plants. All leaf elemental concentrations
.0 at 167% ETc. In 2011, CI decreased from 55.8 at 33% ETc to 53.7 at 167% ETc ( Table 1 ). Decreased CI values with increased irrigation rates were likely due to dilution effect of nutrients, since plant growth was enhanced with increased irrigation
dilution effect associated with the higher biomass produced by these plants, as suggested by the higher total content of Ca in subirrigated plants when compared with drip-fertigated plants. Phosphorus concentration was affected in the root and in the whole
Two rootball sizes as well as a nontransplanted control were randomly assigned to Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple) trees in four adjacent nursery rows at Waynesboro Nurseries in Waynesboro, Va. One size (75 cm in diameter) corresponded to the American Association of Nurserymen standards. The other rootball size was 90 cm in diameter. Trees were transplanted just before bud swell or during shoot elongation. Rootball size had no effect on height, stem diameter, or twig growth, total nonstructual leaf nitrogen content (LNC), or total stem nonstructual carbohydrate (TNC). Height growth was reduced by 81%, stem diameter growth by 71%, and twig growth by 82% for trees transplanted before bud swell compared to nontransplanted trees. LNC was 25% more on transplanted trees than on nontransplanted trees, presumably due to a dilution effect. TNC was 20% higher on transplanted compared to nontransplanted trees. Growth was severely curtailed on late-transplanted trees for all characteristics measured compared to all other treatments.
In the acid podzol soils of Maine where most lowbush blueberries are grown, low availability of boron tends to keep foliar B concentration below the 24 ppm standard. To compare efficacy of soil and foliar boron application methods, 1.5 × 7.6-m treatment plots in a commer-cial lowbush blueberry field received soil-applied borate at 0, 1.1, 2.2, or 3.3 kg·ha-1 B with or without additional DAP (89 kg·ha-1 P) and ZnSO4 (3.3 kg·ha-1 Zn) or foliar-applied Solubor at 0, 0.24, 0.49, or 0.74 kg·ha-1 B with or without the additional DAP and Zn. These 16 treatments were replicated eight times in a randomized complete-block design. Leaf B concentrations were raised by all soil-applied borate treatments and by the 0.49 and 0.74 kg·ha-1 B foliar Solubor treatments, compared to the controls. When borate at 2.2 or 3.3 kg·ha-1 B was combined with DAP plus Zn a lower leaf B concentration was observed compared to B alone, possibly due to a dilution effect caused by an increase in DAP-induced growth. Leaf P deficiency (<0.125% P) was corrected when DAP and Zn were included in the fertilizer treatment. The greatest potential yield (flower buds/stem and flower bud density) was measured in treatment plots receiving a combination of DAP plus Zn and either borate at 2.2 kg·ha-1 B or Solubor at 0.74 kg·ha-1 B. With no additional treatments applied in 1999, leaf B concentrations were slightly higher in soil-treated and foliar-treated plots than in controls suggesting a small carryover from 1997-applied boron. Carryover may vary with rainfall.
We grew three diploid (2X) Citrus rootstock seedlings and their autotetraploids (4X) at elevated CO2 to obtain insights into limitations on growth and net gas exchange that have been associated with tetraploidy. Well-nourished Volkamer lemon (Volk), Troyer citrange (Troy), and Cleopatra mandarin (Cleo) were grown in greenhouses at ambient or twice ambient CO2 for 3 months. We measured plant growth, water relations, mineral nutrition, and net gas exchange characteristics of leaves. Overall, tetraploid roots were thicker as 4X had lower root length: dry weight ratio or specific root length (SRL) than 2X roots. Tetraploid plants were smaller and had higher root/shoot ratios, shorter fibrous roots, and lower whole plant transpiration than 2X. Tetraploids also had lower leaf N and P concentrations on a dry weight basis. Since 4X leaves had thicker leaves (more dry weight per area) than 2X leaves, these nutrient differences disappeared when expressed on an leaf area basis. Elevated CO2 increased plant growth but decreased leaf N, P, and K apparently by a growth dilution effect. Elevated CO2 also increased fibrous root thickness, leaf thickness, and net assimilation of CO2 (ACO2) but decreased stomatal conductance and transpiration such that leaf water use efficiency increased. There was no effect of ploidy level on ACO2 but 4X Volk and Troy had lower rates of ACO2 than their diploids at elevated CO2. Hydraulic conductivity of intact root systems (measured in a pressure pot) was correlated to total plant growth but variability obscured effects of CO2 or ploidy on root conductivity. The low SRL of tetraploids were correlated with lower rates of water use and lower leaf nutrient concentrations, which may be operative in determining the growth characteristics associated with tetraploidy.
hypothesized that increasing yields has resulted in decreased concentrations of mineral elements in produce because of a “dilution effect” caused by plant growth rates exceeding the ability of plants to acquire these elements ( Jarrell and Beverly, 1981 ) that
, which resulted in the highest quality scores, had some of the lowest foliar K concentrations. This was likely due to a dilution effect. On the other hand, treatments 20 and 25, which had statistically equivalent quality scores to treatment 22, had some
have a dilution effect on THC, THCA, and CBGA. Although the dilution effect was apparent with increasing fertilizer rate, it did not have a substantial impact on the total per-plant yield of most cannabinoids. This was evidenced by a lack of correlation