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Panthip Boonsong, Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, and Frank B. Matta

Synthetic hair coloring products are widely used and are known to cause problems such as breakage of hair stands, loss of hair, dry scalp, risk of cancer ( Zheng et al., 2002 ), allergic, and mutagenic and carcinogenic effects ( Thun et al., 1994

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Satoru Kondo, Kentaro Hiraoka, Shozo Kobayashi, Chikako Honda, and Norihiko Terahara

Cyanidin 3-galactoside was the primary anthocyanin in red `Tsugaru' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The concentration of cyanidin 3-galactoside in the skin decreased from 20 to 62 days after full bloom (DAFB), then increased rapidly after 104 DAFB. Small amounts of cyanidin 3-arabinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside were detected at 122 and 133 DAFB (harvest). The expression of five anthocyanin biosynthetic genes of chalcone synthase (MdCHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (MdF3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (pDFR), anthocyanidin synthase (MdANS), and UDP glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (pUFGluT) was examined in the skin of red and nonred apples. In general, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in red apples was strong in juvenile and ripening stages. The expression of MdCHS, MdF3H, pDFR, and MdANS was observed before ripening stage when anthocyanin was not detected. In contrast, the expression of pUFGluT was detected in the development stage only when anthocyanin was detected. However, the expression of all five genes was observed at 20 DAFB in fruit bagged after fertilization, and anthocyanin was not detected. The expression of MdCHS, MdF3H, pDFR, and MdANS, excluding pUFGluT, was detected at 98 DAFB in fruit bagged after 30 DAFB, and anthocyanin was not detected. These results suggest that pUFGluT may be closely related to the anthocyanin expression in apple skin at the ripening stage.

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Young Soon Kwon, Soon-Il Kwon, Jeong-Hee Kim, Moo Yong Park, Jong Taek Park, and Jinwook Lee

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Yanjun Guo, Terri Starman, and Charles Hall

constant weights. To quantify the quality of plants, photos of shoots for both species were taken from above at the end of production and postproduction to determine the shoot coloring percentage (the percentage of the shoot covered by flowers). To

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii, and Zabihollah Zamani

Merging new orchard designs with an efficient rootstock and high-coloring strain of an apple cultivar can result in production of higher yield with better fruit quality ( Fallahi et al., 2011 ; Marini et al., 2008 ; Veberic et al., 2007

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Fan-Hsuan Yang, Lisa W. DeVetter, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

: petal fall, early green, late green, fruit coloring, 10% blue, 25% blue, and 75% blue ( Table 1 ). The percentage of blue was approximated and represented the proportion of berries that turned blue in the entire field on a given day. At each stage

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M. Cecilia Peppi and Matthew W. Fidelibus

excessively inhibiting coloring. Materials and Methods Plant material and growing conditions. The experiments were conducted on mature own-rooted ‘Flame Seedless’ vines at the Kearney Agricultural Center (KAC), Parlier, CA (2005) or in a

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Khalid F. Almutairi, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine C. Strik

for 2 weeks from the water deficit treatments during the early green (EG), late-green or late-green to fruit coloring (LG/LG–FC), or fruit coloring to blue (FC–B) stages of fruit development. Measurements. The plants began flowering in mid to late

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Yanjun Guo, Terri Starman, and Charles Hall

during the vegetative growth stage of poinsettia reduced transpiration rate (E) and net photosynthetic rate (P n ), but not during the flowering and bract coloring development stage ( Nowak, 2002 ). Grower profits are increased when overhead and labor

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Adriana Telias, Emily Hoover, and Diego Rother

‘Honeycrisp’ is a cultivar developed by the University of Minnesota and released in 1991 ( Luby and Bedford, 1992 ). Many of its characteristics have attracted growers and consumers, resulting in a major increase in production. Coloring of