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C.M. Menzel and A. Toldi

. Producers on the Sunshine Coast in southeastern Queensland grow strawberries over winter in a subtropical environment, and use mainly short-day cultivars supplied each year as bare-rooted plants grown at about 900 m elevation at Stanthorpe in southern

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C.M. Menzel and L. Smith

Strawberry production in southeastern Queensland, Australia, is based mainly on short-day cultivars supplied each year as bare-rooted transplants from nurseries at Stanthorpe in southern Queensland or from Toolangi in Victoria ( Menzel and Toldi

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Christopher M. Menzel and Lindsay Smith

al., 2009 ; Whitaker et al., 2011 ). Producers in southeastern Queensland obtain new bare-rooted transplants from nurseries situated at Stanthorpe in southern Queensland or at Toolangi in Victoria. Conditions in the southern growing area are ≈2 to 3

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Christopher M. Menzel and Lindsay Smith

Yields of bare-rooted ‘Festival’ strawberry plants in southeastern Queensland, Australia, were best with a planting in mid-March, with lower yields with earlier or later plantings ( Menzel and Smith, 2011 ). In contrast, large plants with crown

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Marc van Iersel

Uprooting and transplanting seedlings can cause root damage, which may reduce water and nutrient uptake. Initiation of new roots and rapid elongation of existing roots may help minimize the negative effects of transplant shock. In this study, seedlings with four true leaves were transplanted into diatomaceous earth and the plants were transferred to a growth chamber, where they were treated with NAA (0, 0.025, 0.25, and 2.5 mg·L-1; 36 mL/plant). The effects of drenches with various amounts of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on the posttransplant CO2 exchange rate of vinca [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] were quantified. Whole-plant CO2 exchange rate of the plants was measured once every 20 minutes for a 28 day period. Seedlings treated with 0.025 or 0.25 mg·L-1 recovered from transplant shock more quickly than plants in the 0 and 2.5 mg·L-1 treatments. Naphthaleneacetic acid drenches containing 0.025 or 0.25 mg·L-1 increased whole-plant net photosynthesis (Pnet) from 10 days, dark respiration (Rdark) from 12 days, and carbon use efficiency (CUE) from 11 days after transplanting until the end of the experiment. The increase in CUE seems to have been the result of the larger size of the plants in these two treatments, and thus an indirect effect of the NAA applications. These differences in CO2 metabolism among the treatments resulted in a 46% dry mass increase in the 0.025 mg·L-1 treatment compared to the control, but shoot-root ratio was not affected. The highest rate of NAA (2.5 mg·L-1) was slightly phytotoxic and reduced the growth rate of the plants.

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Monika Walter, Cath Snelling, Kirsty S.H. Boyd-Wilson, Geoff I. Langford and Graeme Williams

System requirements for organic strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) runner production under cover were determined during the 2001-02 and 2002-03 seasons. In the field, yield and fruit quality were assessed for organically produced runners (plug and bare-rooted transplant) in comparison with barerooted conventionally produced runners under organic, BioGro certified production conditions. The preferred organic production system was the enhanced suspended system, where mother plants grew on benches in the tunnel house and the first two runners were potted into growth substrate. This system produced approximately 50 plug transplants/mother plant or 200 plug transplants/m2. The least preferred system was the nursery bed, where mother plants were allowed to produce runners that yielded approximately 100 bare-rooted runners or 100 transplants/m2. Tunnel house production of runners (plug transplants and bare-rooted) allowed earlier planting (March vs. May) compared to field-produced bare-rooted runner plants. The earlier planting date increased yield by approximately 181 g/plant. Under organic production conditions, organically produced runners (plug and bare-rooted transplants) performed at least as well as bare-rooted conventionally produced runners. Our results show that indoor production of organic strawberry runners is possible. We also showed that organically produced runners (bare-rooted and plug transplants) perform similarly in the field compared to bare-rooted conventionally produced runners. Generally, there were no differences in yield or fruit quality among runner sources.

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D.D. Crunkilton, H.E. Garrett and S.G. Pallardy

Ectomycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal, glasshouse-grown northern red oak seedlings (Quercus rubra L.) received root treatments of IBA in starch, fired-montmorillonite clay, or starch-encapsulated montmorillonite clay. Clay proved to be superior to starch as a carrier for IBA, inducing significant increases in diameter, root length, leaf area, and shoot dry weight. Positive growth interactions between mycorrhizae and IBA were found with the clay carrier. The typical bare-rooted red oak seedling (grown for 1 year in nurseries and outplanted) performs poorly because of insufficient root size. Container-grown seedlings produced using clay/IBA treatments may perform better under field conditions than stock grown conventionally. Chemical name used: indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Thomas E. Marler and Grace B. Paloma

Container-grown Annona muricata seedlings were bare-rooted and re-potted in sand. Containers were irrigated daily with a complete nutrient solution adjusted to a pH of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8, and the seedlings were grown for ≈5 months. Numerous growth variables were measured, including canopy volume, increase in mass, and trunk diameter. There were no differences in growth measurements among the pH levels. Moreover, leaf tissue was analyzed for mineral content. Leaf tissue concentration of various minerals did not differ among the pH levels. Annona muricata is known for growing well in a range of soil conditions. These data verify that the species is adapted to a wide range of substrate pH.

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Thomas E. Marler

An aeroponics system was used to determine root growth of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle following removal from containers. Rooted cuttings were planted in 0.46-liter containers in a 1 sand: 1 perlite medium, and watered daily and fertilized with a complete nutrient solution weekly. The plants were grown in the containers until root growth had filled the container volume. A sample of plants was removed from the bench after 86, 146, or 210 days in container production. Plants were bare-rooted and the existing root system dyed with methylene blue, and placed in the aeroponics system. The plants were maintained in the aeroponics system for 50 days, then were harvested and the roots separated into pre-existing roots and new roots. Two dimensional area and dry weight of roots were measured. Relative new root growth of plants that were maintained 210 days in the containers was less than that of plants that were removed from containers earlier. The data indicate that maintaining plants in containers for extended periods of time may reduce root regeneration following removal from containers.

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John M. Englert, Leslie H. Fuchigami and Tony H.H. Chen

Desiccation stress during the postharvest handling of bare-root nursery plants is often responsible for poor performance after transplanting. Alternate methods of handling desiccation sensitive deciduous trees, such as Washington hawthorn (Crataegus phaenopyrum Med.), and herbaceous perennials species, including Iris, Hosta, and Hemerocallis, are needed for improving survival after transplanting.

A new antidesiccant compound called Moisturin has been useful in reducing water loss from Washington hawthorn trees during storage and shipping, and in improving survival and plant performance during establishment. Hawthorn seedlings or multi-stemmed trees treated with Moisturin before a period of water stress had up to 75% less dieback than control or other antidesiccant treatments.

The use of Moisturin treatment and / or protection with plastic bags of topped bare-rooted herbaceous perennials before five weeks of cold storage (2C) was effective in improving the survival of Iris ensata, Iris sibirica, and Hosta plants. Hemerocallis plants survived equally well with all treatments. The greatest effect on reduction of water loss and improvement of survival was when plants were sealed in plastic bags.