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Samuel G. Obae, Mark H. Brand, and Richard C. Kaitany

Japanese barberry ( Berberis thunbergii DC.) is a deciduous spiny woody shrub of the barberry family (Berberidaceae). This species is native to Japan and was introduced to the United States in the late nineteenth century ( Dirr, 1998 ). It is

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Lifei Chen, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Qiang Liu, and James Altland

and landscape crops is necessary to prevent salt damage and maintain aesthetically appealing landscapes. Berberis thunbergii (japanese barberry) is a species native to Japan and eastern Asia, although widely naturalized in China and North America

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Marie-José Côté and Lisa Leduc

Common barberry ( Berberis vulgaris L.) is an alternate host for black stem rust of wheat, Puccinia graminis Pers. The shrub provides a means for the pathogen to reproduce after the winter and then spread to new cereal plants in the spring

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Brian H. Murphree, Jeff L. Sibley, D. Joseph Eakes, and J. David Williams

The influence of three shade levels on propagation of golden barberry (Berberis koreana Palib. × B. thunbergii DC.) selection `Bailsel' was evaluated in studies initiated 29 Apr. and 18 Sept. 1998. After 57 days, root ratings were higher in plants under 70% and 80% shade treatments than 60% shade for both studies. In study one, viability was lower among plants under the 60% shade level than those under 70% or 80% shade levels. Viability among treatments was similar in study two. Based on visual observations, leaf retention appeared greater under the 70% and 80% shade treatments than the 60% shade treatment for both studies. Cuttings rooted under 70% and 80% shade levels generally had a uniform golden hue, whereas the foliage of those rooted under 60% shade often had a red hue and showed signs of desiccation for both studies. Root dry weights were greater for cuttings under the 60% shade levels than 70% or 80% shade.

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Jessica D. Lubell, Mark H. Brand, Jonathan M. Lehrer, and Kent E. Holsinger

Invasive populations of Japanese barberry ( Berberis thunbergii DC.) are currently found in 30 states across the United States ( Anonymous, 2007 ). Barberry plants are established from seed, which is primarily dispersed by birds and small rodents

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Jonathan M. Lehrer and Mark H. Brand

While Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is an acknowledged invasive plant, the danger posed by its garden cultivars is unknown. This work analyzed the reproductive potential and seedling traits of wild type Japanese barberry and four important cultivars: `Atropurpurea', `Aurea', `Crimson Pygmy', and `Rose Glow'. The germination capacity of cleaned and stratified seeds was determined for all accessions in a greenhouse and seedling foliage color was noted. A subpopulation of seedlings from each accession was grown further in containers outdoors for a full season to ascertain seedling vigor. The average number of seeds produced per landscape specimen ranged from 75 and 90 for `Aurea' and `Crimson Pygmy' to 2967 for `Atropurpurea', 726 for `Rose Glow', and 1135 for wild type B. thunbergii. The vigor of 1-year seedlings—as measured by dry weight of top growth—for progeny derived from `Aurea' (2.29 g) and `Crimson Pygmy' (2.74 g) was less than `Atropurpurea' (3.45 g), `Rose Glow' (3.88 g) and wild type (3.73 g). Seedlings derived from purple-leaf cultivars displayed variable ratios of green and purple leaf phenotype correlated to the proximity and identity of likely Japanese barberry pollinators. `Rose Glow' specimens located among other purple-leaf B. thunbergii produced up to 90% purple seedlings, while other samples growing in isolation or near green-leaf plants produced less than 10% purple progeny. This suggests that some invasive green-leaf Japanese barberry could be derived from cultivars. The results also show that these cultivars express disparate reproductive potential.

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Anthony W. Kahtz and Nick J. Gawel

One-year-old `Royal Burgundy' barberry (Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea) liners were potted in 1-gal (3.8-L) containers. Container media consisted of noncomposted recycled waste mixed at rates of 0% (control), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% by volume with a (by volume) 3 pine bark: 2 peat: 1 sand media. Treatments were replicated eight times. Three grams (0.1 oz) of Osmocote 13-10-13 (13N-4.37P-10.8K) with micronutrients were topdressed on all containers. Media electrical conductivity (EC) and pH readings were recorded every fifteen days over the course of 5 months. Dry shoot, root, and total weights were recorded at the end of the project and a foliar analysis was performed for nutrient and metal content. Results indicate a general trend of higher EC with greater volumes of recycled waste. EC levels for the control and 25% treatment were within recommendations for the optimal plant growth of plants for the duration of the study. All treatments had an acceptable pH level for plant growth. Nitrogen levels were below the recommended foliar analysis sufficiency range. Levels of phosphorus and potassium were above or within the recommended foliar analysis sufficiency range. Metals were below or within recommended ranges for all treatments. Total dry weights revealed no statistical difference between the control, 25%, 50%, and 75% treatments. This study indicates that 25% noncomposted recycled waste could be used in container media for production of `Royal Burgundy' barberry.

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Jonathan M. Lehrer, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell

While japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.) is an acknowledged invasive plant naturalized throughout the eastern and northern U.S., the danger posed by its popular horticultural forms is unknown and controversial. This work analyzed the reproductive potential and seedling growth of four ornamental genotypes important to the nursery industry. Fruit and seed production was quantified in 2001, 2002, and 2003 for multiple landscape plants of B.t. var. atropurpurea, `Aurea', `Crimson Pygmy', and `Rose Glow'. The average number of seeds produced per landscape specimen ranged from lows of 75 and 90 for `Aurea' and `Crimson Pygmy' to 2968 for var. atropurpurea and 762 for `Rose Glow'. Seed production relative to canopy surface area for `Rose Glow' was similar to `Aurea' and `Crimson Pygmy' and all three cultivars were less prolific than var. atropurpurea in this regard. Cleaned and stratified seeds from var. atropurpurea, `Crimson Pygmy' and `Rose Glow' showed an average greenhouse germination rate of 70% to 75%, while `Aurea' yielded 46% germination. A subpopulation of seedlings from each genotype accession was grown further outdoors in containers for a full season to ascertain seedling vigor and development. The vigor of 1-year-old seedlings, as measured by dry weight of canopy growth, for progeny derived from `Aurea' (0.70 g) and `Crimson Pygmy' (0.93 g) was significantly less than var. atropurpurea (1.20 g) and `Rose Glow' (1.33 g). These results demonstrate that popular japanese barberry cultivars express disparate reproductive potential that, after further study, may be correlated with invasive potential. Some popular commercial cultivars may pose significantly less ecological risk than others.

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M.E. Arena, G. Vater, and P. Peri

The aim of this work was to study the phenology and fruiting characteristics of B. buxifolia Lam. at Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. One-year-old shoots had significantly more and heavier fruit than older ones. The orientation, height position, and age of shoots significantly affected the shrub productivity. The highest relative number of fruiting shoots, fruit number and fruit weight were found on the northern side of shrub, followed by eastern, western and southern orientations. The relative number of fruiting shoots, fruit number and fruit weight were higher in the upper half of the plant. One-year-old fruiting shoots were significantly higher than 2- and 3-year-old shoots. Likewise, the relative fruit number and fruit weight were significantly higher on 1-year-old than older shoots.

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Jessica D. Lubell

The nursery and landscape industry is facing the loss of some of its most important landscape shrub crops, such as japanese barberry and winged euonymus, because of their invasive tendencies. Consumer awareness of invasiveness has reduced sales of