use traditional greenhouse production techniques to grow littoral aquatic plant species to meet market needs for these plants without costly infrastructure upgrades. With the exception of visual quality of blue-eyed grass, overhead irrigation did not
Lyn A. Gettys and Kimberly A. Moore
Lyn A. Gettys
operations, clogging irrigation intakes, blocking access to recreational resources, interfering with the use of watercraft, and reducing aesthetics (and property values) ( Holm et al., 1969 ). Overgrowth of aquatic plants can also inhibit water movement and
Heather Hasandras, Kimberly A. Moore, and Lyn A. Gettys
Conservation of aquatic plant areas is crucial to promote a balanced ecosystem of food and habitats for fish and birds. Natural interactions in aquatic communities are supported by native aquatic plants that help improve water quality by removing
A. Fortuna, P.E. Rieke, L.W. Jacobs, B. Leinauer, and D.E. Karcher
Rapid aquatic plant growth in Michigan's smaller lakes has reduced their navigability and recreational use. Harvested aquatic weeds have posed a new waste disposal issue for municipalities. Application of lake weeds as a soil amendment on area farms was viewed as a possible waste management option that might benefit local sod producers. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate the amount of plant-available N (PAN) released from lake weed material, 2) determine the chemical composition of aquatic plant tissues and their effect on plant-available moisture, and 3) study turfgrass response to lake weed applications using the criteria of turfgrass quality, growth, and N uptake. Rates of lake weed refuse applied to field plots were 96, 161, and 206 Mg·ha-1. Two 47-day laboratory incubations were conducted with the same rates of refuse. Relative to biosolids, the metal content of the lake weeds was low and the nutrient content high. One megagram of lake weeds contained 0.37 kg of P and 2.5 kg of K. The decay constant for the C fraction in lake weeds was 8 to 10 days and 16 days for the N fraction. Estimates of the N supplied by lake weeds (570, 960, and 1200 kg PAN/ha) were based on data from C and N incubations. Application of lake weeds significantly increased plant-available soil moisture and significantly enhanced sod establishment and turf density, resulting in decreased weed pressure. However, excess N was present at higher application rates. Management concerns during the application of lake weeds should focus on nutrient loading and the timing of plant-available N release. Depending on methods of weed harvesting, we observed that large amounts of unwanted trash present in the plant biomass could discourage use by growers. Land application of lake weed refuse could ease waste disposal problems, reduce fertilizer inputs for sod growers, and improve the moisture status of sands. Further, this information can be of value to environmental regulatory agencies in determining safe and proper use of such waste materials.
Lyn A. Gettys, Kyle L. Thayer, and Joseph W. Sigmon
oversaw the expenditure of $17.007 million and $15.126 million in federal and state funds to control aquatic plants in Florida’s public water bodies in fiscal year (FY) 2017–18 and FY 2018–19, respectively ( FWC, 2018 , 2019a ). More than half of this
Michael E. Kane, Edward F. Gilman, Matthew A. Jenks, and Thomas J. Sheehan
Procedures for in vitro establishment, rapid shoot proliferation, and ex vitro plantlet acclimatization of Cryptocoryne lucens de Witt were determined. Shoot cultures were established from surface-sterilized shoot tips cultured on Linsmaier and Skoog salts and vitamins medium (LS) solidified with 0.8% (w/v) agar and supplemented with 2.0 μm BA and 0.5 μm NAA. The effect of BA (0 to 20 μm) and 0.5 μm NAA on shoot multiplication from single-node and clustered triple-node shoot explants was determined after 35 days. The most efficient shoot proliferation (7.7 shoots/explant) occurred from single-node shoot explants cultured on LS + 20 μm BA and 0.5 μm NAA. Maximum plantlet establishment was achieved by direct sticking of triple-node (cluster) microcuttings in either soilless planting medium or polyurethane foam cubes. Production of highly branched salable plants from microcuttings was possible within 18 weeks. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).
Fengfeng Du, Xiaojing Liu, Yajun Chang, Naiwei Li, Yuesheng Ding, and Dongrui Yao
Nelumbo Adans., widely known as lotus, is an important genus of perennial aquatic plants with considerable ornamental value ( Du et al., 2018 ). There are only two species: Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Nelumbo lutea Willd. Nelumbo nucifera
Michael E. Kane, Nancy L. Philman, and Matthew A. Jenks
Only a few plants are suitable for reliably demonstrating rapid direct and indirect shoot organogenesis in vitro. A laboratory exercise has been developed using internodes of Myriophyllum aquaticum, an amphibious water garden plant. Stock shoot cultures are established and maintained in vitro from nodal explants cultured on agar-solidified medium consisting of half-strength Murashige & Skoog salts (MS) and 30 g·liter-1 sucrose. Students use these cultures as the source of internode explants. Explants are cultured on agar-solidified full-strength MS with 30 g·liter-1 sucrose, 100 mg·liter-1 myo-inositol, and 0.4 mg·liter-1 thiamine·HCL and factorial combinations of 0 to 10 μM 2iP and 0 to 1.0 μM NAA. Adventitious shoot development occurs directly from the explant epidermis within 4 days and is promoted in media supplemented with 2iP alone. Cytokinin-supplemented media amended with NAA induce organogenetic callus formation, but reduce 2iP promotion of direct shoot organogenesis. After 4 weeks, shoot organogenesis on the various media is quantified and can be analyzed statistically. Chemical names used: N-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (2iP); α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).
Michele L. Crawford, Paula S. Williamson, Tina M. Waliczek, David E. Lemke, and Thomas B. Hardy
establishment success. Texas wild rice ( Zizania texana Hitchc.) is a federally endangered aquatic plant known to occur only in the San Marcos River, Hays County, TX ( USFWS, 1978 ). The enactment of a habitat conservation plan in 2012 placed priority on the
Yanmei Zhang, Xuelin Shen, Xiaoqin Sun, Jia Liu, Yifeng Xia, Xin Zou, and Yueyu Hang
has been classified into 70 species, 30 species, 20 species, and 13 species by different studies ( Cook, 1990 ; Kak, 1988 ; Tutin et al., 1968 ; Vassiljev, 1965 ). The Chinses Advanced Aquatic Plant Illustration describes 30 species in the genus