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Carmina Gisbert, Judith M. Dumm, Jaime Prohens, Santiago Vilanova and John R. Stommel

anthocyanin coloration in eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) Genetics 60 475 491 Vilanova, S. Manzur, J.P. Prohens, J. 2012 Development and characterization of genomic simple sequence repeat markers in eggplant and their application to the study of diversity

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Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez and Touria E. Eaton

Karam, F. Saliba, R. Skaf, S. Breidy, J. Rouphael, Y. Balendonck, J. 2011 Yield and water use of eggplants ( Solanum melongena L.) under full and deficit irrigation regimes Agr. Water Mgt. 98 1307 1316 Kirnak, H. Tas, I. Kaya, C. Higgs, D. 2002 Effects

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Heeock Boo, Honggi Kim and Hyunhwa Lee

Eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.), as a member of the Solanaceae family, mostly demands high temperature and light during its growth ( Krug, 1991 ; Messiaen, 1989 ). It is usually grown in open fields during summer and in greenhouses during

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Mahdi S. Abdal and Jagan N. Sharma

Eggplant is an important vegetable crop in Kuwait. Eggplant is considered to have moderately sensitive salt-tolerance, though no quantitative information is available on its salt sensitivity. Selecting salt-tolerant genotypes in eggplant is an ongoing project at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Towards the goal of selecting salt-tolerant genotypes in eggplant a completely randomized experiment using 10 cultivars, replicated 3 times were tested against 2 levels of high salinity stress (EC at 25°C, 15.0 and 18.0) along with the control (EC at 25°C, 3.0). The experiment was conducted on 15 days old seedlings inside a greenhouse. Data on shoot length and visual observations on leaf necrosis, leaf collapse and root color was also recorded. There was a clear degree of variability as well as significant differences in growth and final survival, between cultivars at 2 levels of salinity stress. Those genotypes that showed significant higher growth rates and survival without any signs on leaf necrosis and root collapse formed the basis salt-tolerant genotypes.

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J. Pablo Morales-Payan

Field studies were conducted in the Dominican Republic to determine the effect of several plant growth regulators on the yield of `Jira' eggplant. Treatments consisted of aqueous solutions of folcysteine (25, 50, 75 ppm), giberellic acid 3 (10, 20, 30 ppm), kinetine (25, 50, 75 ppm), naphthalenacetic acid (NAA) (25, 50, 75 ppm), 2,3,4-dichloro-phenoxy-triethyl-amine hydrochloride (DCPTA) (25, 50, 75 ppm), triacontanol (5, 10, 15 ppm), ethanol (5, 10, 15%), and chlormequat (50, 100, 150 ppm) sprayed at early flowering, directed to the crop upper leaves and flowers. A control treatment (no plant growth regulators applied) was also included. A randomized complete-block design with four replications was utilized. Experimental units were two rows of 10 plants at a 1.0 × 0.4-m distancing. Eggplant fruit set and yield were determined after 10 harvests performed at 3-day intervals. Analysis of variance and mean comparison tests were performed on the resulting data. `Jira' eggplant fruit set and yield was significantly improved by folcysteine, giberellic acid 3, and NAA, but not by kinetine, DCPTA, ethanol, triacontanol, or chlormequat. Eggplant yield increased as folcysteine rate increased from 0 to 50 ppm, but no further yield increase was obtained when increasing the rate from 50 to 75 ppm. Similarly, eggplant yield significantly increased as gibberellic acid increased from 0 to 20 ppm, but not when rates increased from 20 to 30 ppm. With NAA, eggplant fruit set and yield significantly increased above that of control plants when 25 ppm was applied, with no significant yield increase at higher rates. Results indicate that the yield of `Jira' eggplants could be enhanced by the treatments with either folcysteine, NAA, or gibberellic acid hereby described.

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G. Jelenkovic, S. Billings, Q. Chen, J. Lashomb and G. Ghidiu

A chimeric construct, containing the synthetic cryIIIA (Btt) gene, the NPTII selectable marker and the uidA reporter gene, was incorporated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens into eggplant, variety Hibush. The synthetic cryIIIA gene, altered at the nucleotide level without changing the amino acids of the toxic protein by J. Kemp of New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, is adapted for high expression in plant cells. To verify the transgenic status, GUS assays were performed on over 300 plants, from which 185 were confirmed to be transgenic. Physical incorporation of the chimeric construct was further confirmed by Southern analysis of about 30 transgenic plants; both single and multiple site incorporation of the Btt gene were found. Resistance to Colorado potato beetle (CPB) was assessed by: a) placing egg masses of CPB on leaves of plants grown in the growth chamber; b) placing first-instar larvae on detached leaves; c) observing 173 transgenic plants under field conditions. About 60% of the transgenic plants displayed a very high level of resistance to CPB. No larvae survived on the resistant plants longer than 50–60 hours after hatching. Upon selfing, the transgenic plants with a single construct segregate in the S1 generation in a Mendelian fashion.

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James J.K. Leary and Joe DeFrank*

Two long-term field experiments were conducted from 1998 to 2000 to compare the yields of marketable eggplant in a buffelgrass living mulch system to a conventional monoculture bare ground system. The initial experiment compared the yields in the conventional treatment to living mulch treatments, that were chemically suppressed at three levels of sethoxydim applied at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 kg·ha-1 a.i. Regression analysis did not reveal a significant linear response of eggplant yield to increasing levels of sethoxydim. The average cumulative yield of the three living mulch treatments, 130 days after transplant (DAT), was 4,296 kg·ha-1 compared to 2,079 kg·ha-1 for the conventional treatment. The higher yield in the living mulch treatments was due to a mite infestation that was much more pronounced in conventional plots. In the follow-up experiment, three different living mulch management (mechanical suppression, chemical suppression, and untreated) treatments were compared to a conventional monoculture bare ground treatment. There was no mite infestation affecting this experiment and cumulative yields of marketable fruit at 159 DAT were 5,362, 4,521, 4,155, and 2,535 kg·ha-1 for conventional bare ground, mechanical suppression, chemical suppression and untreated living mulch treatments, respectively. Orthogonal comparisons showed that the yields from the conventional treatments were not significantly different from the suppressed living mulch treatments. However, the eggplant yields from the unmanaged living mulch treatments were significantly reduced in comparison to the conventional and also the suppressed living mulch treatments.

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Lindsay C. Paul and James D. Metzger

Vermicomposting is a promising method of transforming unwanted and virtually unlimited supplies of organic wastes into usable substrates. In this process, the digestive tracts of certain earthworm species (e.g., Eisenia fetida) are used to stabilize organic wastes. The final product is an odorless peat-like substance, which has good structure, moisture-holding capacity, relatively large amounts of available nutrients, and microbial metabolites that may act as plant growth regulators. For these reasons, vermicompost has the potential to make a valuable contribution to soilless potting media. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transplant quality and field performance of vegetable transplants grown in vermicompost. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) transplants were grown in a commercial soilless mix including 0%, 10%, or 20% (v/v) worm-worked cattle manure. Growth of vegetable transplants was positively affected by addition of vermicompost, perhaps by altering the nutritional balance of the medium. Transplant quality was improved in peppers and eggplants while tomato transplant quality was slightly reduced. There were no significant differences in field performance.

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John R. Stommel and Judith M. Dumm

. Stintzing, F.C. Carle, R. 2006 Anthocyanins, colour and antioxidant properties of eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) peel extracts Z. Naturforsch. C 61 527 535 Schemske, D.W. Bradshaw, H.D. 1999 Pollinator preference

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Na Liu, Baoli Zhou, Xin Zhao, Bo Lu, Yixiu Li and Jing Hao

Eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) is a major vegetable crop worldwide. Considerable yield loss under continuous monocropping in commercial eggplant production is often caused by soilborne diseases, particularly verticillium wilt (caused by