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Jessica Chitwood, Ainong Shi, Beiquan Mou, Michael Evans, John Clark, Dennis Motes, Pengyin Chen, and David Hensley

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an important vegetable worldwide with high nutritional and health-promoting compounds. Bolting is an important trait to consider to grow spinach in different seasons and regions. Plant height and leaf erectness are important traits for machine harvesting. Breeding slow bolting, taller, and more erect spinach cultivars is needed for improved spinach production. A total of 288 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) spinach accessions were used as the association panel in this research. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) were used for genotyping. Two structured populations and the admixtures were inferred for the 288 spinach accession panel using STRUCTURE and MEGA. Association mapping was conducted using single-marker regression (SMR) in QGene, and general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) built in TASSEL. Three SNP markers, AYZV02001321_398, AYZV02041012_1060, and AYZV02118171_95 were identified to be associated with bolting. Eight SNP markers, AYZV02014270_540, AYZV02250508_2162, AYZV02091523_19842, AYZV02141794_376, AYZV02077023_64, AYZV02210662_2532, AYZV02153224_2197, and AYZV02003975_248 were found to be associated with plant height. Four SNP markers, AYZV02188832_229, AYZV02219088_79, AYZV02030116_256, and AYZV02129827_197 were associated with erectness. These SNP markers may provide breeders with a tool in spinach molecular breeding to select spinach bolting, plant height, and erectness through marker-assisted selection (MAS).

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Patrick P. Moore and Chad E. Finn

included in the plantings, and the differences in surviving cultivars from year to year, each planting and harvest season was analyzed separately. Data were analyzed as a randomized block design using General Linear Models (GLM) and Tukey's “Studentized

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Craig E. Kallsen and Dan E. Parfitt

were counted per slide. A general linear models (GLM) analysis was performed with MiniTab17.3.1 ( Minitab Inc., 2016 ); cultivars and years were treated as fixed effects. Years were not significantly different but cultivar and cultivar by year

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Smit le Roux and Graham H. Barry

block design consisting of 12 single-tree replicates. Blocking was used to reduce the possible effect of experimental error due to within-site variation as a result of lighting and microclimate. Analysis of variance was conducted using the general linear

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Huihui Liu, Ke Cao, Gengrui Zhu, Weichao Fang, Changwen Chen, Xinwei Wang, and Lirong Wang

GWAS based on the previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 129 peach accessions ( Cao et al., 2016 ). The first model was general linear model (GLM) without any consideration for principal component analysis (GLM–no PCA); the

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Jennifer L. Emerson, John Frampton, and Steven E. McKeand

were included in the study. The general linear model (GLM) procedure in SAS ( SAS Institute, Inc., 2003 ) was used to perform an analysis of variance on individual tree values. The lsmeans option in the general linear model was used to calculate least

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J.G. Williamson and E.P. Miller

conclusion of the study, eight ‘Star’ plants were carefully excavated by hand from the experimental site with their root systems intact for visual examination of the roots. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Models (GLM) procedure of SAS (version 9

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Heather L. Papinchak, E. Jay Holcomb, Teodora Orendovici Best, and Dennis R. Decoteau

ozone within the chamber (the point at which the trial were ended) were used to account for the ozone depletion rate for each treatment. General Linear Model (GLM) was used to determine the significant factors affecting the depletion curves. Day, time of

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Amir Rezazadeh, Richard L. Harkess, and Guihong Bi

). Eight single plant replications were used in a randomized complete design. Data were analyzed using the general linear model (GLM) procedure of SAS (version 9.3; SAS Institute, Cary, NC) to determine the effect of PGRs and pinching on growth and