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George E. Boyhan, Julia W. Gaskin, Elizabeth L. Little, Esendugue G. Fonsah, and Suzanne P. Stone

local organic produce. This increased demand has sparked an interest among conventional vegetable growers in certified organic production techniques and has put increasing demand on existing organic growers. Discussions with organic growers, particularly

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H.H. Bryan, A.A. Abdul-Baki, L. Carrera, G. Zinati, and W. Klassen

161 ORAL SESSION 30 (Abstr. 635–642) Vegetable Crops: Sustainable Agriculture Wednesday, 26 July, 4:00–6:00 p.m

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M.C. Palada, S.M.A. Crossman, and J.A. Kowalski

102 POSTER SESSION 4C (Abstr. 202–210) Culture & Management—Vegetables

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J.W. Buxton and Wenwei Jia

55 ORAL SESSION 9 (Abstr. 451-456) Vegetable Crops: Crop Production

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Richard L. Parish and Regina P. Bracy

Selecting the proper seeder setup to meter a given seed lot effectively can be very difficult for a vegetable grower, especially if the seed lot is not graded for size uniformity. A belt-type seeder should effectively singulate the seeds if the seeds are spherical and uniform because the holes are specifically sized. Seeds that are not graded for size uniformity may not be singulated effectively by a belt-type seeder. A vacuum-type seeder should uniformly meter a wider range of seed sizes better than a belt-type seeder since the holes in the seed plate must only be smaller than the smallest seeds in the lot. Seed lots (graded and ungraded) of two turnip (Brassica rapa L. rapifera group) cultivars were metered with a belt seeder using belts with holes 6/64 inch (2.4 mm) or 7/64 inch (2.8 mm) in diameter or with a vacuum seeder. Neither the belt nor vacuum seeder satisfactorily singulated any of the seed lots. With the larger (7/64 inch) belt holes, there were excessive incidences of multiple seeds per drop. With the smaller (6/64 inch) belt holes, multiple drops and missed seed were excessive. The vacuum seeder also resulted in excessive misses and multiples.

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Eric B. Brennan

Every 5 years, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) releases dietary guidelines to help Americans choose nutritious foods to prevent chronic, diet-related diseases and promote better health. Nutrient-rich vegetables are a critical part of this

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Alberto Pardossi and Luca Incrocci

cropping systems [e.g., dry land bean ( Phaseolus spp.), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), and potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) in Latin America; winter melon ( Cucumis melo ) in Mediterranean regions], in field-grown vegetable crops irrigation is essential to

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O. Smith-Kayode, Richard Thompson, and Yoshiko Yamauchi

178 ORAL SESSION 54 (Abstr. 396–399) Food Science/Vegetables (Tropical & Subtropical)

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Ray R. Hollist, Ronald H. Campbell, and Robert Campbell

56 ORAL SESSION 10 (Abstr. 444–450) Culture & Management–Vegetables

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Jesús Gallegos, Juan E. Álvaro, and Miguel Urrestarazu

parameters have been studied ( Lemaire and Papin, 1989 ; Spencer, 1972 ) due to their importance in ornamental, vegetable, and forest crops. Root spiralling is one of the most important factors influencing vegetative and root development, in addition to