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Jose Linares, Johannes Scholberg, Kenneth Boote, Carlene A. Chase, James J. Ferguson and Robert McSorley

growers to benefit from special marketing niches and grower-friendly price mechanisms ( Athearn, 2004 ). Weeds compete with crops for water, nutrients, and light. Serving as potential hosts for insect pests and diseases, weeds can also interfere with

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Daniel C. Brainard and D. Corey Noyes

limited. Indeed, most vegetable production systems till extensively to suppress weeds, to incorporate residues, and to promote mineralization and soil-warming. For small seeded crops like carrots, tillage is critical for creating the fine seedbed necessary

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Daniel R. Miller, Robert J. Mugaas, Mary H. Meyer and Eric Watkins

fertilized twice (40 and 109 d after seeding) at 1.0 lb/1000 ft 2 nitrogen (N) per application. Broadleaf weeds were controlled with 2,4-D amine (AgriSolutions, Brighton, IL) on 2 July 2009 and 2,4-D amine + triclopyr (Nufarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL) on 23

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W. Carroll Johnson III and Jerry W. Davis

warm season crops and weeds. Other researchers have evaluated rates of several commercial products, application timing, and combinations with cultivation in many cropping systems and regions ( Boyd and Brennan, 2006 ; Boyd et al., 2006 ; Curran et al

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Charles L. Webber III, Merritt J. Taylor and James W. Shrefler

the use of more naturally occurring herbicides need alternatives that effectively provide season-long weed control. Although corn gluten meal has shown promise as an early season preemergent herbicide in vegetable production, any uncontrolled weeds can

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Makhan S. Bhullar, Simerjeet Kaur, Tarundeep Kaur and Amit J. Jhala

number and size ( Ahuja et al., 1999 ; Dallyn 1971 ; Nelson and Thoreson, 1981 ; Singh and Bhan, 1999 ). Weeds may also hinder mechanical harvest ( Pandey, 2000 ; Wall and Friesen, 1990 ). Critical period of weed control in potato is 20 to 66 d after

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Julie Bussières, Stéphanie Boudreau, Guillaume Clément–Mathieu, Blanche Dansereau and Line Rochefort

.e., half, full, and twice the recommended rate ( Hamel, 1986 ). Fertilizer was surface-applied within 10 cm around plants in mid-June 2000. Weeds were mowed between and within rows two to three times each year with a land mower. Plant numbers in the

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John Wilhoit and Timothy Coolong

, 2005 ; Ngouajio and McGiffen, 2004 ). Currently, polyethylene (plastic) film-mulches are the primary mulch used in vegetable production for in-row weed control; however, weed control between rows can be a significant challenge for some producers. Weeds

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Nicole Burkhard, Derek Lynch, David Percival and Mehdi Sharifi

-row weeds. However, some can cause injury to young plants ( Hanson and Havens, 1992 ) and are restricted from use in certified organic production ( Canadian General Standards Board/Standards Council of Canada, 2006 ). As an alternative, thickly applied

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Wenlei Guo, Li Feng, Dandan Wu, Chun Zhang and Xingshan Tian

insect pests, plant diseases and weeds throughout the year in the region ( Liu et al., 2014 ; Shen et al., 2018 ). To ensure a good harvest, necessary control strategies, particularly chemical measures, are implemented mainly in two stages: before