The effects of inhibitors of ethylene synthesis and action on the vase life and quality of fresh and cold-stored ‘Gabriella’ roses (Rosa hybrida L. cv. Gabriella) were investigated. Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) as a 1-hr pulse at 3 or 10 mM had no effect on the longevity of fresh flowers. However, the 10 mM pulse, applied either before or after cold-storage, extended by up to 2.7 days the longevity of roses that had been stored for 3 weeks at 1C. Silver thiosulfate (STS), as a 0.5-hr pulse at 0.5 mM, extended the life of fresh and cold-stored roses by 2 and 3 days, respectively.
Continuous treatment with 8% ethanol doubled the vase life of `White Sim' carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers. Other alcohols, other concentrations of ethanol, or pulse treatments with up to 8% ethanol had little or no effect. Butanol and longer-chain alcohols shortened vase life and caused the flower stem to fold. During their eventual senescence, the petals of ethanol-treated flowers did not inroll; instead, individual petals dried slowly from their tips. Very little ethylene was produced by ethanol-treated flowers, and the normal increase in ACC content and EFE activity was also suppressed. Ethanol treatment also decreased the flowers' sensitivity to exogenous ethylene.
Survey analysis of the major North American rose producers provided a profile of industry marketing and postharvest management practices. The role of the wholesaler in product distribution has diminished, as more than half of the firms now utilize some form of retail distribution. Although most firms perceived little industry-wide uniformity in rose grading, packaging procedures were uniform, with most firms packaging roses in units of 25. The use of floral preservatives has been widely adopted, as nearly 80% of the firms used preservatives in their production operations, but postharvest storage practices have not been optimal, as nearly 45% of the firms stored roses at non-optimal temperatures levels. Most firms indicated that roses last between 5 and 6 days; however, 47% of the firms indicated that rose vase life should extent to 8 days or longer.
Out of the 25 microorganisms commonly occuring in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. ‘Improved White Sim’) vase solutions, 3 greatly reduced carnation vase life when added individually to vase solutions. Some of these microorganisms also reduced the vase life of roses (Rose hybrida ‘Cara Mia’), chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum × morifloium Ramat. ‘May Shoesmith’) and other cultivars of carnation (‘Improved Red Sim’ and ‘Improved Pink Sim’). The microorganisms that reduced flower vase life were tentatively identified as a yeast, a fluorescent pseudomonad and a nonfluorescent pseudomonad. A 10-fold reduction in the initial inoculum level affected neither the final microbial concentrations nor the vase life of the test flowers. The effects of the different microbes were not correlated with their effects on solution pH.
Various postharvest treatments were evaluated for effect on longevity and quality of cut Campanula medium L. `Champion Blue' and `Champion Pink' stems. Stems stored at 2 °C either wet or dry had no difference in vase life or percent flowers opened; however, flowers stored dry had a slightly greater percentage of senesced flowers at termination. Increasing storage duration from 1 to 3 weeks decreased vase life. Stems pretreated for 4 hours with 38 °C floral solution (deionized water amended to pH 3.5 with citric acid and 200 mg·L-1 8-HQC) or a 1-MCP pulse followed by a 5% sucrose pulse solution produced the longest vase life (10.3 or 10.4 days, respectively). Flowers opening after treatments commenced were paler than those flowers already opened and a 24-hour pretreatment with 5% or 10% sucrose did not prevent this color reduction. Stems had an average vase life of only 3.3 days when placed in floral vase foam but lasted 10.0 days without foam. Optimum sucrose concentration was 1.0% to 2.0% for stems placed in 22 °C floral vase solution without foam and 4% for stems placed in foam. High (110 μmol·m-2·s-1) or low (10 μmol·m-2·s-1) light levels did not affect postharvest parameters, but the most recently opened flowers were paler under low light conditions than under high light conditions. Chemical names used: 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC); 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).
Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Symptoms of deterioration include petal in-rolling and discoloration, which results in reduced vase life ( Badiyan et al., 2004 ; Bowyer et al., 2003 ; Thompson et
Physostegia purpurea Blake is a native, herbaceous perennial that has potential as a field-grown cut flower. Physostegia stems were harvested with one third of the florets open and were recut underwater in the laboratory. Fresh cut flowers treated with silver thiosulfate (STS) and held in a 2% preservative solution lasted 14 days, while control stems in deionized water (DI) lasted 6 days. Cut stems placed in darkness at 0C for 1 week had 8 days of vase life after removal from storage and treatment with STS and preservative, while stems held in DI after storage lasted only 4 days. Stems held dry at 22.5C and 43% RH for 8 hours before being placed in preservative had similar vase life as flowers placed in preservative immediately after harvest.
Five members of the Proteaceae and 13 Australian native cut flower cultivars were stored for 35 days under standard conditions at 1C to assess their ability to withstand long-term storage and transport. Protea cynaroides L., Leucadendron `Silvan Red', Leucospermum `Firewheel', Thryptomene calycina (Lindl.) Stapf., Telopea speciosissima R. Br., and Verticordia grandtiflora Endl. retained a vase life of at least 7 days after 21 days of storage. Leucospermum cordifolium Salisb. ex Knight, Protea neriifoli R. Br., Chamelaucium uncinatum `Alba', C. uncinatum `Purple Pride', Verticordia monadelpha Turcz., Verticordia plumosa (Desf.) Druce, and Verticordia nitens (Lindl.) Schau. suffered a decline in vase life ranging from 31% to 100% after 14 to 21 days of storage. Species of Verticordia and Chamelaucium were particularly susceptible to fungal infection. Anigozanthos pulcherrimus Hook. and the Anigozanthos cultivars Ruby Delight, Bush Harmony, Bush Haze, and Gold Fever all showed a significant reduction in vase life after 14 days of storage compared with unstored controls.
The effects of the duration of cold storage, as well as the concentration, timing, and means of application of a solution containing 25 mg·L-1 each of benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins (GA4+7) on the postharvest quality of cut Asiatic and Oriental lilies (Lilium sp.) were evaluated. Depending on the cultivar, lower leaves began to turn yellow between 1 and 2 weeks after placing non-cold-stored stems in a 20 °C room illuminated 12 h·d-1 with 8 μmol·m-2·s-1 from cool-white fluorescent lamps. Leaf yellowing continued to progress upward until the end of the vase life. Cold storage (3.3 °C) worsened the leaf disorder, particularly, on the Oriental lily `Stargazer'. The longer the duration of cold storage, the earlier the development of leaf yellowing and the higher the percentage of leaves that were chlorotic. In addition, cold storage induced bud blasting, inhibited flowers from fully opening, and reduced the longevity and fresh weight of open flowers and the vase life of cut stems. Spraying leaves with a solution containing 25 mg·L-1 each of BA and GA4+7 significantly reduced cold-storage-induced leaf yellowing, bud blasting, and vase life of three of the four cultivars tested. The development of leaf yellowing declined with increasing concentration of BA+GA4+7. The susceptibility of `Stargazer' to cold-storage-induced leaf yellowing and bud blasting can be counteracted by a concentration of growth regulators higher than that which was effective for the other cultivars. Timing of the BA+GA4+7 application was not critical, as there were no differences in leaf yellowing or bud development when the solution was sprayed before or after the cold storage. Addition of BA+GA4+7 (0.5 or 2.5 mg·L-1 of each) to the preservative solution or a pulsed treatment in solutions containing 25 mg·L-1 each of BA and GA4+7 for 4 hours prevented leaf yellowing, but increased bud blasting. For practical applications, growth regulators can be sprayed prior to or after cold storage in order to improve the postharvest leaf and flower quality of cut lilies.
last for more than 1 month in a vase ( Clark et al., 2010 ). Growers are hesitant to produce new crops without information on postharvest techniques that maximize postharvest quality. A number of factors influence vase life after harvest, including