An `intermediate leaf' hybrid pickling cucumber (TAMU 884304 X ARK H-19 `little leaf') was direct-seeded at four plant densities (94,570; 48,440; 32,290; 25,375 plants/ha) using four within-row spacings (15, 30, 45, 60cm) at two locations and two seasons. Optimum yield based on marketable fruit number, grade distribution and fruit quality occurred with 94,570 plants/ha. Optimum harvest time depended on location and season. Delayed harvest times were also evaluated. Harvests with fruit >5.1cm in diameter had severely reduced brining quality. Fruit did not enlarge or enlarged slowly to oversize. This resulted in a mixture of fruit ages within the largest marketable fruit grades. It is recommended that `little leaf' lines and their hybrids such as `intermediate leaf' be harvested when fruit 3.8 to 5.1cm in diameter appear and before oversize fruit are produced. Spacing did not significantly effect length/diameter ratio(LDR) but LDR was significantly greater for delayed harvests.
Supplemental calcium application has been shown in our previous work to improve tuber quality and reduce internal defects. We evaluated the response under field conditions of five commerically significant cultivars to a combination of calcium nitrate, calcium chloride and urea (168 kg·ha-1 per season) over three seasons. We were able to determine that the cultivar with the greatest response to supplemental calcium for reduced bruising, `Atlantic' had the lowest levels of tuber tissue calcium. Conversely, cultivars with least response to supplemental calcium, `Dark Red Norland' and `Superior', had the highest levels of tuber tissue calcium. `Snowden' was both intermediate in response to calcium and tuber tissue concentration. Based on data for 3 years, we determined that across cultivars the calcium concentration at which tubers no longer respond is ≈250 ppm and ranges for individual years from 195 to 242 ppm. These results suggest that seasonal variation for individual cultivars may affect the tuber need for calcium for reduced bruising. Although the exact mechanism is not known, we believe that calcium supplemented to bulking tubers may lead to improved cell membrane stability, increased wall structure or enhanced ability of tubers to repair following injury. The results of our study show that supplemental calcium fertilization has the ability to significantly reduce the incidence of tuber bruising for several cultivars.
Three cultivars of strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cvs. Cardinal, A-5344, and Earlibelle) were harvested once-over by machine in 1975 and 1976 and separated into green and ripe fruit. Preserves and jam were manufactured from different combinations of sliced, ripe fruits, puree from ripe and from green fruit, then stored at 2°, 24° and 35°C for 0, 4 and 9 months. There were differences among cultivars and treatments in color attributes and sensory quality but both preserves and jams were highly acceptable from all cultivars and treatments. The greatest change in color and sensory quality was caused by storage at 35° for 4 and 9 months. Green fruit did not affect storage stability and development of browning. As much as half immature, green fruit can be used in the manufacture of preserves and jams without affecting quality in highly-colored cultivars.
Nine snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars were evaluated at N fertilization rates of 17 and 67 kg·ha−1 during 1984 and 1985. Plant lodging was more severe at the high-N rate than at the low rate in both years, and pod decay was more severe at the high-N rate in 1984. ‘Bush Blue Lake 47’ was the only cultivar among those tested that did not have more lodging at the high-N rate than at the low-N rate. ‘Flo’ was the only cultivar with higher yields at the high-N rate. The cultivars evaluated showed the most favorable yield and growth responses at the N rate of 17 kg·ha−1, which is lower than rates usually recommended for snap beans.
Mechanical harvesting of raspberries and blackberries is accepted practice in the Pacific Northwest (14). Commercial development of mechanical harvesters began in the 1950s when the Weygandt machine was introduced to harvest black raspberries in Oregon (22). Subsequent research in Arkansas and Oregon contributed to the development of mechanization (2, 11), and blackberries and later red raspberries were successfully harvested with machines in the 1960s (5). Progress in cane and bush berry harvesting was reported by Nelson and Booster (17) in 1969, by Martin and Lawrence (13) in 1976, and was reviewed by Booster (4) in 1983.
(2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) and 2-chloro-ethyl-tris-(2-methoxyethoxy)silane (Alsol) at 1000 ppm applied 16 days before commercial harvest reduced the fruit removal force (FRF) of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Frantoio) by 73% and 53%, respectively. Alsol markedly reduced FRF soon after treatment while ethephon action took longer. Both chemicals induced high levels of fruit drop and some defoliation, 7% for ethephon and 15% for Alsol. Ethylene evolution was much higher from fruits treated with Alsol than from those treated with ethephon during the first few days after spraying.
The average time required to harvest a carton of lettuce by hand ground pack was 12.67 minutes in 1960-1963 and 3.57 minutes in 1970-1973. The change in the number of harvests, trimming, packing, and method of pay is the reason for the big difference in the time required. Selecting, cutting, and trimming lettuce heads consumed 45.4 to 46.3% of the total harvest time. Film wrapping lettuce heads increases harvest time to 11.19 minutes per carton. An experimental 1-bed harvester increased the man-hour output to 20 cartons, a 3 carton increase over hand ground pack. Estimated cost of harvest with a mechanical harvester would be $.29 per carton, compared with the present cost of $.45. Labor is the major part of harvest costs regardless of method of harvest.
Mechanically harvested fruits of A-5344 and ‘Earlibelle’ strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) were stored at 24°C for 72 and 120 hours in atmospheres containing acetaldehyde (Aa) with and without prior dipping in 0 to 1.5% acetaldehyde solutions. Aa atmospheres and a combination of atmospheres and dips were most effective in maintaining visual color, freedom from browning, and product acceptability of machine harvested strawberries for processing. Fruit stored in atmospheres containing Aa vapor increased in acidity by 72 hours.
In a 4-year study of tomato cultivar (VF-145), using densities from 316,160 to 3,877,900 plants/ha, growth was most rapid below 963,300 plants. The highest yield of marketable fruits, 104.9 millier/ha, was attained with 617,500 plants/ha. Soluble solids in the fruits declined, and plant sugar content increased, at densities above 963,300 plants/ha, concurrent with a reduction in leaf area per plant. Differences in plant density had no significant effect on nutrient content of the plants. Potassium deficiency symptoms were evident at all densities shortly after fruit-set. Total K absorbed by plants increased from 439 kg/ha with 316,160 plants to 1997 kg/ha with 3,877,900 plants.