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Na Zhang, Lu Han, Lixin Xu, and Xunzhong Zhang

activity and lipid peroxidation. Fully expanded leaf blades were excised and then wrapped in foil paper, immersed in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −20 °C until measurement was determined. Determination of enzyme activity was carried out using the method

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Giacomo Cocetta, Ilaria Mignani, and Anna Spinardi

associated to NADPH oxidation at 25 °C, was determined at 340 nm (ε = 6.22 m m −1 ·cm −1 ). The assay buffer was 100 m m Tris-HCl (pH 7.8), 2 m m EDTA, 0.5 m m glutathione in the oxidized form (GSSG). Estimation of lipid peroxidation. Five grams of

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Zhimin Yang, Jingjin Yu, Emily Merewitz, and Bingru Huang

chickling-pea ( Lathyrus sativus ) seedlings as measured by the degree of lipid peroxidation ( Xiong et al., 2006 ). Glycine betaine has also been reported to scavenge for ROS ( Smirnoff and Cumbes, 1989 ) and protect plants from salinity-induced oxidative

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Zhen Shu, Yimin Shi, Hongmei Qian, Yiwei Tao, and Dongqin Tang

Chen, 2007 ). Senescence of plant tissues is generally accompanied by respiration increases; breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids ( Singh et al., 2000 ); higher production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) ( Del Rio et al

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Richard Voisine, Claude Willemot, and Louis Vézina

Cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea) were irradiated at 0, 2, and 4 kGy and stored 8 days at 13°C. Development of yellow color and browning of the in florescence, increase in membrane electrolyte leakage and reduction of protein recovery in microsomal membranes were observed over the storage period. Changes in membrane free fatty acids, lipid phosphorus content, peroxydation level, and fatty acid composition of polar lipids also occurred. These results indicate an important modification of cellular membranes. The direct effect of gamma rays on membrane lipids via free radical production and subsequent destabilization of the lipid bilayer during storage could be responsable for earlier onset of senescence.

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Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Rayen Millaleo, Edgardo Cruces, Cristián Wulff-Zottele, Miren Alberdi, and María de la Luz Mora

., 2003 ). Although Al 3+ cannot catalyze redox reactions, lipid peroxidation (LP) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common and early symptoms of Al 3+ toxicity in plants, followed by alterations in the integrity of the plasma

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Yuliya A. Salanenka, Martin C. Goffinet, and Alan G. Taylor

Cucurbitaceae seeds ( Ramakrishna and Amritphale, 2005 ; Yim and Bradford, 1998 ). This envelope is reported to consist of a single cell layer of endosperm whose outer surface is covered by lipid and callose layers ( Yim and Bradford, 1998 ). The PE envelope of

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Lixin Xu, Liebao Han, and Bingru Huang

), hydroxyl radical (OH*), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), which can attack lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids ( Smirnoff, 1993 ). To minimize and eliminate oxidative damage, plants have evolved an antioxidant defense system comprising

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Kaori Ando and Rebecca Grumet

highly abundant transcripts (present at >0.15% of total EST reads) are listed in Table 3 . The predicted functions included latex-related proteins, and proteins associated with lipids, growth, protein synthesis, defense, phloem transport, and

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Cui-ping Hua, Zhong-kui Xie, Zhi-jiang Wu, Yu-bao Zhang, Zhi-hong Guo, Yang Qiu, Le Wang, and Ya-jun Wang

stress and lipid peroxidation of lily roots, increased the content of H 2 O 2 and MDA, and induced the changes of activities of antioxygen protective enzymes and the content of total phenol. Other research demonstrates the phytotoxicity of PA, which