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the accumulation of large amounts of nutrients before germination, usually starch or lipid droplets. These changes in the nutritional components are closely related to pollen development. The duration and type of nutrient accumulation in anthers vary

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associated with annual bluegrass susceptibility to ice encasement stress. Lipid health and degree of saturation in plant membranes play major roles in plant overwintering. Fatty acid ratios shift to higher levels of unsaturated compared with saturated fatty

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of polysaccharides, lipids, and callose during anther development. Materials and Methods Plant materials. Flower buds were collected from an 8-year-old citrus orchard located in Lishui County, Zhejiang Province, China. The flower buds of

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composition and content of fatty acids in the lipid bilayers of the membrane ( Gigon et al., 2004 ; Yordanov et al., 2000 ). Total lipid content in leaves generally exhibits a decline in response to drought stress in various plant species ( Gigon et al., 2004

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composition of lipids in plant membranes and the fatty acids that compose those lipids play an important role in plant tolerance of heat stress. Temperature and seasonal changes in light duration play a major role in regulating the saturation level of fatty

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., 1988 ; Wang, 1990 ). Various mechanisms have been suggested to account for chilling (CI) or tolerance in plants. Some of the changes related to low-temperature stress include alterations in gene expression, proteins, lipids, carbohydrate composition

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antioxidant activity in response to chilling stress of the fruit ( Yang et al., 2011 ). In grasses, drought stress generates active oxygen species, which causes oxidative damage to lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins ( Smirnoff, 1993 ). Therefore, whether GABA

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in cellular damage through oxidation of membrane lipids, protein, and nucleic acids ( Apel and Hirt, 2004 ). To alleviate detrimental effects of salt-induced oxidative stress, plant cells have evolved a complex antioxidant system (e.g., enzymatic and

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standard curve was made using glucose using a range of 5 to 200 µg·mL −1 . Lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) content based on the methods of Hodges et al. (1999) , with some modifications. Fresh root tissues (100 mg) were

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germinated seed. Lipid content measurements. Seed of each stage was overnight vacuum dried at 50 °C and ground, and triplicates were prepared by weighing 0.03 g of dried seed sample into 10-mL glass tubes. The lipids were extracted using 2 mL hexane/2

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