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Michael A. Schnelle, Sharon L. von Broembsen, and Michael D. Smolen

A comprehensive educational program focusing on water quality protection was developed for the Oklahoma nursery industry. The program focused on best management practices to limit pesticides and nutrients in irrigation runoff and on capture and recycle technology as a pollution prevention strategy. Key professionals from the departments of entomology and plant pathology, biosystems and agricultural engineering, and horticulture formed a multidisciplinary team within the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service (OCES). During 1998, water quality workshops were conducted on-site throughout Oklahoma at leading nursery operations. These workshops were designed to highlight best management practices (BMPs) that were already in place as a foundation on which to implement additional BMPs with the assistance of the OCES team. Training workshops were augmented by written publications, by web-based information, and by videotape instruction. These provided for ongoing education beyond the formal grant period. The written materials included a water quality handbook for nurseries and a fact sheet on capturing and recycling irrigation runoff. The water quality handbook was also made available on the web and a website on disease management for nurseries using recycling irrigation was provided. The water quality video, highlighting successful growers, was designed to show aspects of both best management practices and capture and recycle technology. Results of these 3-year extension efforts will be discussed.

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Monica Ozores-Hampton, Francesco Di Gioia, Shinjiro Sato, Eric Simonne, and Kelly Morgan

Services (FDACS) 2005 Water quality/quantity best management practice manual for Florida vegetable and agronomic crops. 6 June 2015. < http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/32110/789059/Bmp_VeggieAgroCrops2005.pdf > Fraisse, C.W. Hu, Z. Simonne

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Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan, and Steven A. Sargent

Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services adopted a series of best management practices, which includes the use of CRF ( Bartnick et al., 2005 ). Controlled-release fertilizers are SFs occluded in a polymer, resin, sulfur, or a polymer covering a sulfur

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Fred T. Davies Jr., Chunajiu He, Amanda Chau, Kevin M. Heinz, and Andrew D. Cartmill

This research details the influence of fertility on plant growth, photosynthesis, ethylene evolution and herbivore abundance of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev `Charm') inoculated with cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover). We tested five fertility levels that consisted of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 100% (375 ppm N) of recommended nitrogen levels. Aphid abundance was greatest at high fertility. Fertility affected the vertical distribution of aphids. A higher population of aphids were observed in physiologically mature and older leaves at low fertility, whereas at high fertility young leaves had 33% more aphids than older, basal leaves. Aphids depressed plant vegetative and reproductive growth, and altered carbohydrate partitioning at high fertility. Aphid-inoculated (AI) plants at high fertility had increased specific leaf area [(SLA), i.e., thinner leaves] and greater leaf area than aphid-free (NonAI) plants. Aphids caused greater ethylene production in reproductive buds and young leaves of high fertility plants, but had no effect on ethylene evolution in physiologically mature or older, basal leaves. Plant growth, leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) increased at higher fertility, as did chlorophyll and photosynthetic rates. Leaf N was highest in young and physiologically mature leaves compared to basal leaves. Aphids decreased leaf N and P. Aphids reduced photosynthesis in young leaves of high fertility plants, whereas physiologically mature and older leaves were unaffected.

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Nicolas Tremblay and Carl Bélec

Weather is the primary driver of both plant growth and soil conditions. As a consequence of unpredictable weather effects on crop requirements, more inputs are being applied as an insurance policy. Best management practices (BMPs) are therefore about using minimal input for maximal return in a context of unpredictable weather events. This paper proposes a set of complementary actions and tools as BMP for nitrogen (N) fertilization of vegetable crops: 1) planning from an N budget, 2) reference plot establishment, and 3) crop sensing prior to in-season N application based on a saturation index related to N requirement.

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Denny Schrock

Consumer horticulture surveys conducted 7 years apart examined the scope and trends in home horticulture in Olmsted County, MN. Master Gardener volunteers were trained to conduct the telephone surveys. Landscape horticulture was important in terms of numbers of people involved and reasons for gardening. Fewer people viewed vegetable gardening as important. Young people were less likely to garden than older ones. Lack of space was the biggest barrier to gardening.

It was concluded extension should expand newspaper and newsletter media efforts. Development of cooperative programs with garden centers and other agencies was suggested. Opportunities exist for training consumers in pesticide safety and best management practices for horticulture.

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Wayne L. Schrader, Ronald E. Voss, and Kent J. Bradford

Agricultural producers in the United States require timely and accurate information on critical issues, environmental crises, and best management practices to make effective production decisions and to remain competitive in a global economy. Sources of information (university departments, extension, industry, consultants, scientific and trade publications) often take a single discipline approach that makes it difficult for growers to process and utilize information effectively. The high cost of printed publications make frequent updates impractical, while rapidly changing technologies and issues demand continual publication changes and updates. The rapid development and peer review of multi-discipline, research based information is possible through computer information transfer technology. The Univ. of California's Vegetable Crops Research and Information Center (VRIC) has developed a new World Wide Web site to disseminate peer-reviewed fact sheets, research results, updated publications, and multi-media educational resources relating to critical issues, best management practices, postharvest handling, and marketing of vegetable crops. The website disseminates multi-discipline information originating from the Univ. of California, the USDA, and cooperating agencies and universities. The VRIC website proactively sends peer-reviewed critical issue fact sheets to selected news media, government, industry, and academic contacts. These fact sheets help personnel frequently contacted by the media during crises to answer questions effectively. The website directs visitors to additional agricultural information resources and contains information on careers and educational opportunities available in the field of vegetable crops.

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Amy Fulcher, Dava Hayden, and Winston Dunwell

The objectives of Kentucky's Sustainable Nursery Production Practices Extension Program are for 1) the Kentucky nursery industry to continue sustained growth and 2) Kentucky growers to produce high quality plants, efficiently use pesticides, be stewards of their land and Kentucky's environment. Sustainable Nursery Program Components are 1) Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Nursery Scouting, Scout Training and Scouting Education for growers, Extension workers, and students; 2) Best Management Practice (BMP) Workshops: BMP VI: Disease Demolition Workshop; 3) Production Practice Demonstration: Pruning Training, Pesticide Handling, and Safety and Environmental Stewartship. 4.) Research: Pruning protocols; Media and media amendments; Precision Fertilization and Irrigation. The Kentucky Nursery Crops Scouting Program scouting guidelines were developed and contained: a weekly scouting/trapping guide; a listing of which pests to look for and on what host plants, and a detailed methodology of precisely how to look for the pest, its damage, and how to record this information such that comparisons could be made across nurseries and seasons.

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Matthew Byers, George Antonious, and Keenan Bishop

Using USLE standard plots, on 10% slope, on uniform Lowell silt loam soil, the influence of three soil treatments and two representative vegetable crops on soil runoff losses was determined. Yields (1990 and 1991) for each crop × soil treatment combination were also determined. Soil losses were determined by catching runoff, filtering, air drying and massing representative samples. With total volume per plot known, grams sediment per liter runoff were converted to kg/ha. Overall mean yields of pepper were 2.9, 4.7, and 3.7 and pumpkin were 47.3, 87.1 and 76.1 kg/7.3-m row, respectively. Mean sediment losses over five rainfall events in 1991 in peppers were 52, 1158, and 5362; and in pumpkins were 72, 3011, and 7271 kg/ha, for fescue, plastic and no-mulch treatments, respectively. Clearly, fescue in .6-m strips between rows, with comparable yields demonstrated (1991) and negligible sediment losses, was the best management practice (BMP).

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Angela K. Tedesco, Gail R. Nonnecke, John J. Obrycki, Nick E. Christians, and Mark L. Gleason

Field plots of four production systems of `Tristar' dayneutral and `Earliglow' Junebearing strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch.) were established in 1993. Productions systems included conventional practices (CONV), best-management practices including integrated crop management (ICM), organic practices using corn gluten meal, a natural weed control product, (ORG-CGM), and organic practices using a natural turkey manure product (ORG-TM). `Earliglow' plants grown with ORG-CGM showed the highest number of runners and total vegetative biomass. Plots with CONV and ICM systems using standard herbicide treatments had lower total weed numbers (11 and 18, respectively) than ORG-CGM (63) and ORG-TM (58). `Tristar' plant growth, yield and berry number were reduced when plants were grown under straw mulch in ORG-CGM and ORG-TM compared to CONV and ICM plots with polyethylene mulch.