Plug-rooted liners of cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri C.K. Schneid. `Coral Beauty') were grown in 6-L nursery containers filled with three different media: 73 pine bark: 22 peat: 5 pea gravel (Medium 1); 60 pine bark: 25 peat: 15 compost (Medium 2); and 50 pine bark: 50 compost (Medium 3). Plants were fertilized with Polyon (Nutryon) 17–5–12 (17N–2P–5K) 6-month controlled-release fertilizer at various rates (0, 2.5, 4.5, 6.5, and 8.5 kg·m-3 incorporated or dibbled (placed under the liner at potting). Shoot dry weight of cotoneaster increased with increasing fertilizer rates in all three media, and was consistently higher with dibble (calculated maximum ranges, 269-362 g/plant at 6.1–7.5 kg·m-3) than with pre-incorporated (127-263 g/plant at 6.4-8.5 kg·m-3) fertilizer. Trends for root dry weight were similar with dibbled fertilizer but nonsignificant with incorporation, while those for shoot: root ratio were reversed to those for shoot dry weight. Positive correlations were observed between foliar contents of N, P, and K and shoot dry weight from both dibbled and incorporated treatments, as well as root dry weight from dibbled treatments. With incorporation, however, only foliar K was correlated with root dry weight.
C. Chong, P. Purvis, G. Lumis, M.Z. Alam, and E. Roesler
Lucila Amaya Carpio, Fred T. Davies Jr., and Michael A. Arnold
This research determined the effects of two commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inocula, organic slow-release fertilizer (OSRF), and inorganic controlled-release fertilizer (ICRF) on plant growth, marketability and leachate of container-grown Ipomoea carnea N. von Jacquin ssp. fistulosa (K. Von Martinus ex J. Choisy) D. Austin (bush morning glory) grown outdoors under high temperature summer conditions (maximum container media temperature averaged 44.8 °C). Uniform rooted liners were planted into 7.6-L pots containing a pasteurized substrate [pine bark and sand (3:1, by volume)]. The AMF treatment consisted of BioterraPLUS and MycorisePro and a noninoculated control (NonAMF). Fertilizer treatments included OSRF [Nitrell 5-3-4 (5N-1.3P-3.3K)] and ICRF [Osmocote 18-7-10 (18N-3.0P-8.3K)]. OSRF was tested at three rates: 8.3, 11.9, and 16.6 kg·m-3, which were respectively, 70%, 100%, and 140% of manufacturer's recommended rate, while ICRF was tested at two rates: 3.6 and 7.1 kg·m-3, which were, respectively, 50% and 100% of manufacturer's recommended rate. The P levels were equivalent between 70% and 140% OSRF and, respectively, 50% and 100% ICRF. Greatest growth [leaf, shoot, flower bud, and flower number; root, leaf, shoot, and total plant dry mass (DM); growth index; leaf area]; N, P, and K uptake; leaf chlorophyll; and plant marketability occurred with BioterraPLUS plants at 50% and 100% ICRF rate and MycorisePro at the 100% ICRF rate. Greater plant growth occurred with increasing fertility levels; however, plants at the 140% OSRF (same P level as 100% inorganic SRF) had poorest growth, in part due to high temperature. While AMF enhanced growth of plants with OSRF at all concentrations, better growth and marketability occurred with ICRF than OSRF plants inoculated with AMF. AMF plants at the 50% ICRF had comparable or better growth, higher N, P, and K and marketability than NonAMF plants at either 100% OSRF or ICRF. AMF were able to survive under high temperature and colonize plants grown from low to high fertility conditions. AMF inoculation had minimal effect on container leachate (pH and electrical conductivity). However, the larger-sized AMF plants at 100% ICRF rate had greater total leaf tissue N, P, and K, suggesting greater nutrient utilization—thus reduced potential risk for leachate runoff.
Darren L. Haver and Ursula K. Schuch
Salt-sensitive (`Illusion') and salt-tolerant (`Blazon') New Guinea impatiens cultivars were grown for 70 days with a controlled-release fertilizer at 3.3, 6.6, or 9.9 g/pot under constant media moisture of 1–3 kPa or 4–6 kPa. Optimum growth for both cultivars occurred using 6.6 g/pot and a media moisture level of 1–3 kPa. The leaf area (LA), leaf number (LN), leaf dry weight (LDW), stem dry weight (SDW), and root dry weight (RDW) were significantly reduced at 9.9 g/pot in `Illusion', with values similar to those at 3.3 g/pot. LDW, SDW, RDW, LA, and LN were similar for 6.6 g/pot and 9.9 g/pot in `Blazon'. At 4–6 kPa LDW, SDW, RDW, LA, and LN decreased from low to high in `Illusion'. LA in `Blazon' also decreased from low to high, but LDW, SDW, RDW, and LN were unaffected. Media EC levels were greater in the upper half of the media regardless of moisture level. EC values as high as 7.3 dS·m–1 in the upper half of the media and as high as 5.2 dS·m–1 in the lower half of the media were measured without causing plant mortality.
Brian A. Birrenkott, Joseph L. Craig, and George R. McVey
A leach collection unit (LCU) was assembled to capture all leachate draining from a nursery container. An injection molded 2.8-L nursery container was plastic welded into the lid of a 7.6-L black plastic collection bucket so that the bottom 2.5 cm of the nursery container protruded through the lid. The LCU was designed to track total N release from CRFs without confounding effects of plant uptake or N immobilization. Total N released between any two sampling periods is determined by multiplying the N concentration in a leachate subsample × total leachate volume. The LCU were placed in a container nursery area with overhead irrigation. LCU were thoroughly leached before sampling the leach solution. To study the effects of substrate on N leach rates, Osmocote 18.0N–2.6P–9.9K (8 to 9 months 21 °C) was incorporated at 1.8 kg N/m3 using a locally available, bark-based substrate or medium-grade quartz sand. The experiment was conducted at Scotts Research locations in Apopka, Fla., and Marysville, Ohio. Osmocote incorporated into either a bark-based substrate or sand resulted in similar N release profiles. Although substrate did not affect N leach rate, quartz sand was recommended as the substrate in the leach collection system for polymer-coated CRFs. Quartz sand is chemically and biologically inert, does not immobilize nutrients and has low ion exchange capacity compared to bark-based potting substrates. More than 90% of the total nitrogen applied from Osmocote was recovered from leachate and unreleased N in fertilizer granules. This research has demonstrated the leach collection system as a reliable means to quantify nitrogen release rate of a polymer-coated CRF under nursery conditions. The LCU, when used with a crop plant, allows nutrient budget and nutrient uptake efficiency to be determined for CRFs.
Patricia R. Knight, D. Joseph Eakes, Charles H. Gilliam, and Harry G. Ponder
Seed geraniums (Pelargonium × hortorum Bailey `Scarlet Elite') were grown in 10-cm pots in a 1 pine bark : 3 peat moss : 1 perlite medium from 18 March until 5 May 1993. Plants received Osmocote 14N-6.1P-12.5K and either conventional overhead (CO), drip (DI), or subirrigation (SI). Subirrigation produced greater shoot and root dry weights than CO or DI. Plants grown using DI produced fewer branches than plants grown using CO or SI. Plants receiving SI reached anthesis before plants receiving CO or DI. Method of irrigation had no influence on total root, soil, or leachate N, but SI did increase total shoot N.
Kimberly K. Moore
Growth of `Aladdin Peach Morn' petunia (Petunia × hybrida) and `Accent White' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) was compared in substrates containing 0%, 30%, 60%, or 100% compost made from biosolids and yard trimmings and fertilized with Nutricote Total 13-13-13 (13N-5.7P-10.8K) Types 70, 100, and 140 incorporated at rates of 0.5x, 1x, 2x, or 3x (x = standard application rate for a medium-feeding crop). Petunia shoot dry weight of plants fertilized with Type 70 incorporated at 0.5x increased as the percentage of compost in the substrate increased from 0% to 60% and then decreased, while shoot dry weight of plants fertilized with Type 70 incorporated at 1x, 2x, or 3x increased as the percentage of compost increased from 0% to 30% and then decreased. Impatiens shoot dry weight of plants fertilized with Type 70 incorporated at 0.5x and 1x also increased as the percentage of compost increased from 0% to 30% and then decreased, while shoot dry weight of plants fertilized at 2x and 3x decreased as the percentage of compost increased from 0% to 100%. Both petunia and impatiens shoot dry weight of plants fertilized with Type 100 and Type 140 incorporated at 0.5x, 1x, 2x, or 3x increased as the percentage of compost increased from 0% to 60% and then decreased.
Julie P. Newman, Joseph P. Albano, Donald J. Merhaut, and Eugene K. Blythe
1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail Donald.firstname.lastname@example.org . This research was funded in part by grants from the Hansen Trust Fund and the California Department of Food and Agriculture–Fertilizer
Layla J. Dunlap, Jeremiah R. Pinto, and Anthony S. Davis
al., 2010 ). Like traditional fertilizers, organic fertilizer is available in liquid, water-soluble, and controlled-release forms. Production nurseries often use water-soluble inorganic fertilizers or controlled-release fertilizer to grow crops for
J Austin Gimondo, Christopher J. Currey, Darren H. Jarboe, Martin Gross, and William R. Graves
plants fertilized with wastewater-grown algal materials with those traits of plants fertilized with two commercially available fertilizers, a synthetic controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) and a bio-based wastewater treatment coproduct that supplied N in
T.K. Broschat, D.R. Sandrock, M.L. Elliott, and E.F. Gilman
, 2005a ). For maintenance of landscape palms in Florida, fertilizers having an analysis of 8N–0.9P–10.0K–4Mg plus Fe, Mn, copper (Cu), Zn, and B with 100% of the N, K, and Mg in these blends in controlled release form are recommended ( Broschat, 2005a