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Open access

A. J. Lukaszewska, G. R. Dreise, F. J. Pérez-Zúniga, and N. Gorin

Abstract

There was an accumulation of total free amino acids (calculated as the sum of the individual amino acids) in corollas from cut ‘Sonia’ roses (Rosa hybrida) stored at 2C (cold-stored flowers) but not in those kept at 20C (control flowers). In cold-stored flowers, senescence was retarded, as indicated by only a slight opening of the corolla and no subsequent petal abscission. Hence, there appeared to be no direct correlation between senescence of cut roses and accumulation of total amino acids in corollas; neither was there a relationship between individual or total free amino acids and protease activity in the corollas from either cold-stored or control flowers. Changes in the contents of all free amino acids, except alanine and lysine, were affected by cold storage. The effect on aspartic acid was statistically significant, but not spectacular. Cold storage delayed the decrease in contents of glutamic acid, asparagine, tyrosine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine and valine, and prevented accumulation of phenylalanine, proline, and histidine. We detected only one theoretically expected interconversion between two amino acids; i.e., glutamic acid to proline, that occurred in corollas from control flowers during the first 6 days of storage. We suggest that the patterns of changes in the contents of tyrosine, valine, isoleucine (or isoleucine plus leucine), and phenylalanine are not restricted to the cultivar Sonia.

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Paul E. Cappiello and Gary J. Kling

Cornus sericea L. rooted cuttings were held in cold storage for 60 days and then transferred to a growth chamber in hydroponic culture. Roots and shoot tips were sampled during storage and through resumption of vegetative growth. Samples were analyzed for abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch. Budbreak was associated with increasing levels of the cytokinins and IAA, and decreasing levels of sucrose and starch in the shoot tips. Regeneration of new roots was preceded by an increase in the cytokinins and IAA, and a decrease in ABA in roots. Root sucrose increased nearly two times 1 week after budbreak and starch content generally decreased throughout the experiment. The results agree, in general, with previous reports indicating decreasing levels of ABA and increasing levels of cytokinins to be associated with root regeneration and budbreak. They also indicate that, of the four carbohydrates studied, sucrose levels changed most dramatically during the root regeneration and budbreak processes.

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Abdul Hakim, Errki Kaukovirta, Eija Pehu, and Irma Voipio

Mature green tomatoes (cv. Vibelco) were stored at 2°C for 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Intermittent warming treatments for 12, 24, and 36 hours at 24°C were applied at the end of every week. Control Fruit were held continuously at 2°C. All fruit were subjected to poststorage ripening at 24°C for 7 days. Fruit decay, chlorophyll and lycopene content, fruit firmness, pH, TSS and TA were detected after storage or 7 days after transfer to 24°C. Results were compared between control and intermittently warmed fruit when stored at 2°C for 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Compared to fruit kept continuously at 2°C, intermittent warming at 24°C for 12, 24, and 36 hours reduced decay, increased chlorophyll disappearance, lycopene synthesis, and fruit firmness, enhanced pH and TSS, and declined TA. Fruit intermittently warmed for 36 hours/week showed the least decay, higher chlorophyll disappearance, and lycopene synthesis; retention of fruit firmness, pH, and TSS; and lower TA than fruit intermittently warmed for 12 and 24 hours/week. Decay percentage, lycopene content, pH, and TSS were increased from 2 to 4 weeks, but chlorophyll content, fruit firmness, and TA were declined.

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John R. Clark and James N. Moore

Seeds of 25 blackberry (Rubus spp.), five red raspberry (R. idaeus L.), and two black raspberry (R. occidentalis L.) populations that had been stored for 22 to 26 years were planted in the greenhouse to evaluate their germination. Germination ranged from 0% to 84% among all populations. Thorny and thorny × thornless blackberry populations had the highest average germination; most populations had >40% germination. Thornless blackberry populations ranged from 1% to 16% germination. The seeds of two of the five red raspberry populations did not germinate and none of the black raspberry seeds germinated.

Open access

Reni A. Werner, L. Fredric Hough, and Chaim Frenkel

Abstract

Fruit of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) exhibited rehardening when returned to low-temperature storage after softening at room temperature. Rehardening was progressively more pronounced as the temperature decreased. The process occurred in either air or nitrogen atmosphere. The softening of the fruit that occurred normally at room temperature was accompanied by a decline in protopectins and a concomitant increase in water-soluble pectic fraction. By comparison, the rehardening of the fruit at low temperatures was accompanied by little or no change in pectic substances. The results suggest that rehardening is not related to the metabolic changes associated with fruit ripening.

Open access

Paul L. Monette

Abstract

Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch, cv. Hayward) shoot tip cultures were stored in the dark successfully at 8°C. After a year, their fresh weight had increased 8-fold and they produced more shoot tips than at the start of storage. Storage was less successful at 4°. Chemical names used: 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid (IBA), N 6-benzyla-minopurine (BAP).

Open access

Loretta L. Shelton and J.N· Moore

Abstract

Hardwood cuttings from canes of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) collected in early dormancy and stored at 2°C until spring rooted better than cuttings collected in the latter part of the winter. Cuttings placed immediately in a greenhouse propagation structure rooted and grew poorly when collected before mid-December but if collected after mid-December produced plants up to two-fold larger than spring-rooted plants after 1 growing season due to the extended growing period.

Free access

L.J. Skog, R.B. Smith, and D.P. Murr

`Fantasia' nectarines (Prunus persica L.Batsch) were either stored immediately at 0.5C or subjected to a 48-h delay at 20C in air or with 5% CO2 in air before storage. Samples were evaluated at harvest and after 18, 25, 32, 39 and 46 days storage in air or in 5% O2 with 0%, 4%, 8%, or 12% CO2. All samples were evaluated at optimum ripeness. A combination of delayed storage and elevated CO2 in storage effectively delayed chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Control of CI increased with increasing CO2 level in delayed and nondelayed treatments. Delayed storage was not effective without elevated levels of CO2 in the storage atmosphere. Fruit that was stored without delay did not soften normally during the ripening period and developed a dry, rubbery texture. The effect was enhanced as CI progressed, resulting in increased firmness of ripened fruit with increased storage time. The delayed storage treatments softened normally during ripening, but CI fruit had a dry, mealy texture. Internal conductivity measurements correlated well with CI development. Off-flavors were detected at the higher levels of CO2 storage.

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Ahmed F. El-Shiekh, Cindy B.S. Tong, James J. Luby, and Emily E. Hoover

The relationships between cellular characteristics of cortical tissue and changes in texture during storage under controlled atmosphere (CA, 3% O2 + 3% CO2) or air at 0C were studied. The cultivars used were `Delicious', `Cortland', `Honeycrisp' and its parents, `Honeygold' and `Macoun'. The force needed to break a 7-mm cylinder of apple flesh (breaking force) was greatest for `Delicious' and `Honeycrisp'. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that tissues of firm-fleshed cultivars (`Honeycrisp' and `Delicious') fractured through cells, while that of soft-fleshed cultivars (`Cortland', `Honeygold', and `Macoun') fractured between cells. `Honeycrisp' had fewer cells/100 cm2 than the other cultivars. After 9 months of storage, breaking force, cell size, and K+/Ca2+ decreased, while cell number/100 cm2, Ca2+ content, and K+ content increased for all cultivars. Cell number/100 cm2 was significantly less and breaking force was significantly greater for tissue from CA than air-stored fruit.

Free access

Paul M. Chen, Diane M. Varga, and Eugene A. Mielke

`Columbia' and `Gebhard' strains of red `d'Anjou' pears (Pyrus Communis L.) harvested at similar maturity exhibited different ripening behavior after monthly removal from 1C storage in air. `Columbia' fruit produced ethylene at higher rates than `Gebhard' fruit during 15 days of ripening at 20C after each corresponding storage interval, `Gebhard' fruit required a longer period of chilling than `Columbia' fruit to generate noticeable rates of ethylene during ripening. The unripened fruit of both strains contained similar amounts of ACC at each corresponding storage interval. At each corresponding ripened state, ACC content in `Columbia' fruit increased 2 to 3-fold, while that in `Gebhard' fruit changed very little. After sufficient chilling, `Columbia' fruit were capable of softening to proper ripeness, and they developed buttery and juicy texture as indicated by the apparent reduction of extractable juice (EJ) content. `Gebhard' fruit also softened but to a lesser extent than `Columbia' fruit. Ripened `Gebhard' fruit had only slightly lower levels of EJ than unripened fruit and did not develop a buttery and juicy texture after any storage intervals. Titratable acidity (TA) in fruit of both strains varied between for the 1988 and 1989 seasons but decreased significantly during storage in both years. Soluble solids concentrations (SSC) in both strains also varied seasonally but did not change during storage or ripening. Chemical name used: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC).