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Yanwen Gong and Theophanes Solomos

Previous research has shown that subjecting bananas to low O2 treatment during the climacteric rise decreases the rate of sugar accumulation but the fruits eventually ripen. In the present study we applied low O2 in fruits whose ripening had been initiated by exogenous C2H4 and in preclimacteric ones. In preclimacteric fruits low O2 suppressed the climacteric rise during the duration of the experiment (20 days). It completely inhibited the increase in sugars, invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities while there was a sharp increase in sucrose synthase (SS). In control fruits the increase in sugar content coincides with a sharp increase in invertase, and SPS and a decline in SS. Hypoxia inhibited the increase in invertase and SPS while it induced an increase in SS. Nevertheless, the activities of invertase and SPS in the climacteric hypoxic fruits was higher than in hypoxic preclimacteric ones. The results, thus, indicate that the imposition of low O2 at the preclimacteric stage is much more efficient in delaying banana ripening than when it is applied after the initiation of ripening.

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Peter Purvis, Calvin Chong, and Glen Lumis

Plug-rooted liners of common ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.] were grown in 6-L nursery containers filled with 73% composted pine bark, 22% sphagnum peat moss, and 5% pea gravel (by volume). Plants were fertilized with Polyon (Nutryon) 17–5–12 (17N–2P–5K) 6-month controlled-release fertilizer at various rates (2.5, 4.5, 6.5, and 8.5 kg·m-3) pre-incorporated, topdressed, or dibbled (placed under the liner at potting). Plants were trickle-irrigated daily with low (0.4-L), middle (0.8-L), or high (2.0-L) volumes of water to maintain leaching fractions of <0.15, 0.25–0.35, or >0.60, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that growth of ninebark increased from 30 to 109 g/plant with increasing rates of incorporated fertilizer (mean over irrigation volumes), from 27 to 71 g/plant with topdress and from 59 to 103 g/plant with dibble. Electrical conductivity (EC, mean over five dates) of the leachate throughout the season was highest with dibble (0.85 dS·m-3), intermediate with incorporated (0.81 dS·m-3), and least with topdressed (0.76 dS·m-3). With low irrigation volumes, growth of ninebark increased from 42 to 81 g/plant with increasing rates of fertilizer (mean over methods), and from 39 to 105 g/plant with middle or high volumes (common regression curve). With low irrigation volumes, leachate EC increased from 0.74 to 0.94 dS·m-3 with increasing rates of fertilizer, and from 0.75 to 0.81 dS·m-3 with middle or high volumes.

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Christopher A. Proctor, Matt D. Sousek, Aaron J. Patton, Daniel V. Weisenberger, and Zachary J. Reicher

sequential application strategy compared with a full rate applied PRE when applied over multiple years at reduced rates. We found little published research on PRE crabgrass control when different a.i.s were used for initial and sequential applications

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Donnie K. Miller, Thomas M. Batts, Josh T. Copes, and David C. Blouin

epinastic symptomology 8 months after application. In a separate study, Clark and Braverman in 1998 also reported that glyphosate applied at 1/2, 1/4, and 1/10 of the use rate 27 d after transplant reduced ‘Beauregard’ U.S. No. 1 and total marketable yield

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Benjamin Wherley and Thomas R. Sinclair

counter high evapotranspiration rates of well-growing, highly maintained turfgrass may be the application trinexapac-ethyl (TE), a plant growth regulator ( Watschke et al., 1992 ). TE interferes with gibberellin biosynthesis and reduces laminar cell

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Joshua J. Skelton, William Sharp, and Bruce E. Branham

Minner, 2010 ; Reicher et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, Reicher et al. (2011) described postemergence control of ABG as inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine the rate and application interval of mesotrione that will yield the greatest

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Gladys A. Andiru, Claudio C. Pasian, Jonathan M. Frantz, and Pablo Jourdan

fertilizer, at the right time, at the right rate, and at the right location. Appropriate application methods and CRF types must be calibrated to match crop production ( Broschat and Klock-Moore, 2001 ). The nursery and greenhouse industries account for ≈20

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Pascal Braekman, Dieter Foqué, Marie-Christine Van Labeke, Jan G. Pieters, and David Nuyttens

furthermore reveals that almost all growers are convinced that high application rates and spray pressures are indispensable to obtain a satisfactory coverage and sufficient penetration of the often dense crop canopies. This survey also revealed that the

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Bielinski M. Santos and James P. Gilreath

, and flow rates could be among the reasons for the inconsistent results. Duniway (2002) suggested that metam must be delivered carefully to avoid either leaching, when excessive water volumes are used, or rapid volatilization, with application of

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Sean M. Westerveld, Alan W. McKeown, and Mary Ruth McDonald

( White et al., 1983 ), possibly as a result of delayed leaf senescence at higher rates of fertilizer application and, as a result, delayed infection of the foliage by A. dauci ( Vintal et al., 1999 ). Studies examining the ALB/CLS complex showed that