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Jin-wei Zhang, Yi-xue Liu, Jin-ping Yu, Wei Zhang, Ya-qiong Xie and Ning-ning Ge

maintenance ( Uddin et al., 2010 ). Turfgrass weeds include grasses, grass-like plants (rushes or sedges), and broadleaved plants and with annual, biennial, and/or perennial life cycles. Weeds compete with turfgrass plants for light, nutrients, water, and

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Harsimran K. Gill, Robert McSorley and Danielle D. Treadwell

nonchemical technique for controlling weeds, nematodes, and several soil-borne diseases ( Katan, 1987 ; McGovern and McSorley, 1997 ; Stapleton, 2000 ). The increased temperature (45–55 °C) at a 5-cm soil depth under clear plastic films caused mortality of a

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Cécile Bertin, Andy F. Senesac, Frank S. Rossi, Antonio DiTommaso and Leslie A. Weston

grounds, and highway right-of ways. In New York State alone, over 3.4 million hectares have been established in turfgrass ( Ropel et al., 2004 ). In all turf settings, especially lawn and roadside turf, weeds are a key pest problem. A substantial pesticide

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Filippo Rimi, Stefano Macolino and Bernd Leinauer

obtain a sod ready for harvest depends on grass species, cultivar, environmental conditions, and cultural practices ( Beard, 1973 ; McCalla et al., 2008 ). High-quality sod is expected to have full green color, no weeds, in addition to high density and

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Renee H. Harkins, Bernadine C. Strik and David R. Bryla

al., 2007 ; Bushway et al., 2008 ; Heiberg, 2002 ; Krewer et al., 2009 ; Pritts and Kelly, 2001 ; Zebarth et al., 1993 ). Blackberry plants are relatively vigorous, however, and therefore may tolerate more competition from weeds. A few commercial

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Nihat Tursun, Bekir Bükün, Sinan Can Karacan, Mathieu Ngouajio and Hüsrev Mennan

from an estimated 12,083 ha. Dry leek is the most consumed vegetable in Turkey after potato ( Ermenli and Yoldaş, 1999 ). Like many other vegetables, leek is a weak competitor against weeds, thus requiring high costs for weed management ( Baumann et

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S. Christopher Marble

environmental harm, resulting in losses of $35 billion annually ( Pimentel et al., 2005 ). Due to the overall damage associated with invasive plants, more attention has been placed on invasive (i.e., exotic or non-native) weeds and their impacts. Although

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Stephanie Wedryk, Joel Felix, Doug Doohan and John Cardina

agriculture because of perceived risks of lower yields and challenges in managing pests ( Beveridge and Naylor, 1999 ; Hanson et al., 2004 ; Oberholtzer et al., 2005 ). Weed control, especially management of perennial weeds, is often cited by farmers as a

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W. Carroll Johnson III, David B. Langston Jr., Daniel D. MacLean, F. Hunt Sanders Jr., Reid L. Torrance and Jerry W. Davis

by 70%, which resulted in a 96% yield increase compared with the same systems used in direct-seeded onion production. A transplanted onion production system gives the crop an advantage over weeds by providing a time-buffer between transplanting the

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Mary Jo Kelly, Marvin P. Pritts and Robin R. Bellinder

al., 1997 ). Previous research has shown that weed control in the planting year, particularly early in the season, is important for the success of this system ( Pritts and Kelly, 2001 ). Plastic mulch is used in annual systems to control weeds, but it