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James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, William E. Klingeman III, Gregory K. Breeden, Jose J. Vargas, and Philip C. Flanagan

). These herbicides act by inhibiting the enzyme p -HPPD responsible for converting hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate, from which α-tocopherols and plastoquinones are synthesized ( Hess, 2000 ; Lee et al., 1997 ). Two commonly used HPPD

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Mohammad Sadat-Hosseini, Kourosh Vahdati, and Charles A. Leslie

Based on historical evidence, walnuts have been used as a food source since at least 7000 BC ( Dreher et al., 1996 ). The high content of oil (unsaturated fatty acids), protein, antioxidants, phenolic acids, minerals, vitamins, and tocopherol in

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Chunlian Jin, Dan Sun, Chang Wei, Zhenhua Guo, Chunmei Yang, and Fan Li

involved in the antioxidative process, including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, polyphenols, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, terpenoids, tannins, and tocopherols ( Bhatt et al., 2013 ). Many previous studies have reported the isolation of triterpenoid

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Yi Gong, Ronald B. Pegg, Adrian L. Kerrihard, Brad E. Lewis, and Richard J. Heerema

, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phytochemicals ( Eitenmiller and Pegg, 2009 ; Gong et al., 2017 ; Jia et al., 2018 ; Robbins et al., 2011 , 2015 ). Compositional analysis has revealed that pecans contain a sizable quantity of lipids, which are

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Xiuxiu Sun, Elizabeth Baldwin, Mark Ritenour, Anne Plotto, and Jinhe Bai

-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the results showed that oxygen significantly increased the overall discoloration of paprika pigments ( Morais et al., 2001 ). The addition of other antioxidants, such as tocopherols, were able to

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Wilawan Kumpoun, Takashi Nishizawa, Yoshie Motomura, Tanidchaya Puthmee, and Toshiyuki Aikawa

, glutathione, tocopherol, flavonoids, alkaloids, and carotenoids. The enzymatic scavenging mechanism includes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). SOD dismutates O 2 − to H 2 O 2 , then CAT, POD

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Carlos H. Crisosto, Vanessa Bremer, Louise Ferguson, and Gayle M. Crisosto

vitamin C, tocopherols, carotenoids, and phenolics can alter the metabolic activation and detoxification/disposition of carcinogens, affect processes that modify the development of tumor cells ( Kader, 2001 ), and avoid neurochemical and behavioral changes

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Daljeet S. Dhaliwal and Martin M. Williams II

mg per 100 g), vitamin B1 (0.4 mg per 100 g), vitamin B2 (0.17 mg per 100 g), isoflavones and tocopherols ( Shanmugamsundaram and Yan, 2004 ). The United States is second in global grain-type soybean production, accounting for 122.5 million metric

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Dean A. Kopsell, J. Scott McElroy, Carl E. Sams, and David E. Kopsell

. Klein, B.P. Jeffery, E.H. Kushad, M. Walig, M.A. Juvik, J.A. 1999 Carotene, tocopherol, and ascorbate in subspecies of Brassica oleracea J. Agr. Food Chem. 47 1576 1581 Le Marchand, L

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Attila Hegedűs, Emőke Balogh, Rita Engel, Béla Zoltan Sipos, János Papp, Anna Blázovics, and Éva Stefanovits-Bányai

( Roginsky and Lissi, 2005 ). In addition to tocopherols, carotenes, and ascorbic acid, phenolics are the main antioxidant components of fruits, vegetables, tea, wine, and so on. Although AOC of polyphenols is associated with various mechanisms, the elevated