In vitro techniques were developed to regenerate plantlets (calliclones) from callus of scented geraniums (Pelargonium spp.). Calliclones were compared to plants derived from stem, root, and petiole cuttings of 5 cultivars. Plants from stem cuttings of all cultivars were uniform and identical to the parental clone. Plants from root and petiole cuttings were more variable with the amount of variation dependent upon cultivar. High variability was associated with calliclones. Aberrant types included changes in plant and organ size, leaf and flower morphology, essential oil constituents, fasciation, pubesence, and anthocyanin pigmentation. Calliclone variation was dependent upon clone and age of callus. Variability in calliclones was due to segregation of chimeral tissue, euploid changes, and heritable changes which may involve individual chromosomal aberrations or simple gene mutations. Variability of calliclones might be exploited for improvement of vegetatively propagated crops especially highly polyploid, sterile lines.