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John R. Stommel

and Eidelman (1986) proposed use of male sterility for production of obligatory parthenocarpic genotypes wherein acceptable fruit weight could be maintained independent of seed production. That technology has since been granted patent protection for

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Philip J. Kauth and Hector E. Pérez

finding buyers and application of various seed technologies to native wildflower germplasm during 2011. Future trends. We asked the participants about their expectations of the FNW industry over the next 5 years. Fifty percent expected FNW seed production

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Jaime Barros da Silva Filho, Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes, Paulo Roberto Cecon, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, Milton E. McGiffen Jr., and Jonathan F. Montgomery

. Chuquillanqui, C. Rodríguez-Delfín, A. 2012 Response of three potato cultivars grown in a novel aeroponics system for mini-tuber seed production Acta Hort. 947 361 367 Mateus-Rodríguez, J.R. de Haan, S. Andrade-Piedra, J.L. Maldonado, L. Hareau, G. Barker, I

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Jane Kahia, Margaret Kirika, Hudson Lubabali, and Sinclair Mantell

importantly it offers potential environmentally friendly approach to the long-term control of coffee diseases and in production of organically grown coffee. The propagation of Ruiru 11 is by F 1 hybrid seed, production through hand artificial cross

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Kim D. Bowman, Lynn Faulkner, and Mike Kesinger

in Florida and elsewhere to plan for large scale seed production. No attempt has been made to present information on relative growth of seed trees for the four USDA rootstocks, or relative fruitfulness of those seed trees. However, it has been a

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Sadiye Hayta, Mark A. Smedley, Jinhong Li, Wendy A. Harwood, and Philip M. Gilmartin

may also be used to increase the population size of plants used as parents in F 1 seed production. Micropropagation techniques offer the fastest way of propagating these varieties. The first report of Primula micropropagation ( Coumans et al., 1979

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Chandra Thammina, Mingyang He, Litang Lu, Kaishuang Cao, Hao Yu, Yongqin Chen, Liangtao Tian, Junmei Chen, Richard McAvoy, Donna Ellis, Degang Zhao, Yuejin Wang, Xian Zhang, and Yi Li

the ornamental and landscape industries and its popularity among consumers, development of sterile, non-invasive E. alatus cultivars is in high demand ( Gagliardi and Brand, 2007 ). The invasiveness of E. alatus is related to its high seed

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Charles E. Christianson, Stephen S. Jones, and Lindsey J. du Toit

seed growers in the semiarid, inland Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) produced greater than 50% of the world supply of carrot seed and ≈85% of the U.S. carrot seed supply on ≈3100 ha in the 2011–12 biennial season for seed production at

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Aref A. Abdul-Baki

Selected breeding lines and cultivars of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentrum Mill.) were evaluated for heat tolerance in the greenhouse (39°C day and 28°C night) and field using flowering, fruit-set, yield, fruit quality, and seed production as criteria. Under high temperature, heat tolerant lines performed better than the other two groups in all evaluation criteria except for seed production. The opposite was found under normal field conditions where heat sensitive commercial cultivars outyielded the heat tolerant lines and cultivars. Production of viable seeds under high temperature was severely reduced regardless of the heat tolerance level exhibited by the line or cultivar. Some of the heat tolerant lines could provide valuable sources of plant material for physiological studies to establish the molecular basis of heat tolerance and also could provide excellent germplasm sources for breeding heat tolerant tomato cultivars.

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Barbara C. Hellier and Marie Pavelka

The USDA garlic (Allium sativum and Allium longicuspis) collection is maintained at the ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS) in Pullman, Wash. This collection comprises 269 accessions, of which 153 are hardneck (flower producing) types. The fertility characteristics of these accessions was evaluated in the field at Pullman, Wash. After the spathes opened, bulbils were removed from all the evaluated accessions to facilitate flower development. The umbel and flower characteristics taken were anther color, flower color, flower shape, stigma position, flowers per umbel, umbel diameter, umbel shape, umbel defects, bulbil size, bulbil color, ease of bulbil removal, spathe opening, pollen production, and pollen viability. Of the 153 accessions, 10 produced only partial scapes with bulbils midstalk and no seed production capability. Viable pollen was shed in 85 accessions with viability ranging from 8% to 85%. Open-pollinated seed was generated by 19 of the Pullman, Wash., grown accessions. Seed production was low with yields from 6 to 91 seeds per accession.