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Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan, and Steven A. Sargent

environment. Literature Cited Bartnick, B. Hochmuth, G. Hornsby, J. Simonne, E. 2005 Water quality/quantity best management practices for Florida vegetable and agronomic crops. Florida Dept. Agr. Consumer Serv., Tallahassee, FL BeÌnard, C. Gautier, H. Bourgaud

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Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan, and Jerry B. Sartain

should maintain a steady water table to reduce N leaching during the crop season. In response to the Federal Clean Water Act of 1972 and the Florida Restoration Act of 1999, a series of agronomic and vegetable best management practices (BMPs) have been

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Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva, Joara Secchi Candian, Elizanilda Ramalho do Rego, Timothy Coolong, and Bhabesh Dutta

losses while adopting best management practices to reduce disease incidence. The bacterium can be seedborne and seed-transmitted or can survive on crop residue and on cruciferous (Brassicaceae) weeds ( Cook et al., 1952 ; Lema et al., 2011 ; Vicente et

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Amanda Bayer, Imran Mahbub, Matthew Chappell, John Ruter, and Marc W. van Iersel

structures, and inefficiencies in irrigation systems. Inefficient and excessive irrigation leads to increased runoff of water and nutrients ( Million et al., 2007 ). Best management practices have been adopted by many nurseries to use water resources more

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Monica Ozores-Hampton

This review integrates information from common organic amendments used in conventional vegetable production, including 1) cover crops (legumes and nonlegumes), 2) compost generated from yard wastes, biosolids, municipal solid waste (MSW), animal manures, and other biodegradable waste by-products, and 3) raw animal manure (with and without bedding). Environmental monitoring has shown elevated nitrate concentration to be widespread in both surface and groundwater, often occurring in regions with concentrated horticultural production. Therefore, the objective of this review was to calculate the nutrient content from organic amendments, since these are not considered nutrient sources. Common organic amendments affect soil bulk density, water-holding capacity, soil structure, soil carbon content, macro- and micronutrients, pH, soluble salts, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and biological properties (microbial biomass). The first step in building a conventional tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fertility program will be to take a soil sample and send it to a soil laboratory for a nutrient analysis. These results should be compared with the local crop recommendations. Second, select the organic amendments based on local cover crop suitability and availability of compost, raw animal manure, or both. Then, determine the nutrients available from cover crops and other applied organic amendments and use inorganic fertilizer sources to satisfy the crop nutrient requirements not supplied from these other sources.

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Bielinski M. Santos, Teresa P. Salame-Donoso, and Alicia J. Whidden

Two field studies were conducted to determine whether foliar kaolin clay applications would reduce water volumes during the establishment of bare-root strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) transplants. Transplant establishment treatments resulted from combinations of duration of sprinkler irrigation and foliar application of kaolin clay were: a) 4 days of sprinkler irrigation, b) 4 days of sprinkler irrigation plus kaolin clay on day 5, c) 6 days of sprinkler irrigation, d) 6 days of sprinkler irrigation plus kaolin clay on day 7, e) 8 days of sprinkler irrigation, f) 8 days of sprinkler irrigation plus kaolin clay on day 9, and g) 10 days of sprinkler irrigation (control). One day of sprinkler irrigation was defined as the application of 8 hours per day of irrigation to ensure plant establishment, using ≈6000 gal/acre per hour of water. Kaolin clay treatments were applied using a rate of 25 lb/acre and on the early morning of the following day after sprinkler irrigation was suspended. Treatments influenced the number of established plants and diameter at 4 and 8 weeks after transplanting (WAT), leaf greenness at 8 WAT, and early and total fruit weight. There were no differences in the number of established plants among treatments that received 10 days of sprinkler irrigation (control), 8 days of sprinkler irrigation followed by kaolin clay on day 9, and 6 days of sprinkler irrigation followed by kaolin clay on day 7, ranged between 97% and 98% plant survival. The highest strawberry early and total fruit weights (3.6 and 15.7 tons/acre, respectively) occurred in plots transplanted with either 6 days of sprinkler irrigation plus kaolin clay on day 7, 8 days of sprinkler irrigation plus kaolin clay on day 9, or 10 days of sprinkler irrigation. These data indicated that the addition to kaolin clay after 6 or 8 days of sprinkler irrigation improved strawberry establishment, growth, and yields to the same levels as the control treatment, while saving at least 20% of the water volume needed for establishment.

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Lucila Amaya Carpio, Fred T. Davies Jr., and Michael A. Arnold

This research determined the effects of two commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inocula, organic slow-release fertilizer (OSRF), and inorganic controlled-release fertilizer (ICRF) on plant growth, marketability and leachate of container-grown Ipomoea carnea N. von Jacquin ssp. fistulosa (K. Von Martinus ex J. Choisy) D. Austin (bush morning glory) grown outdoors under high temperature summer conditions (maximum container media temperature averaged 44.8 °C). Uniform rooted liners were planted into 7.6-L pots containing a pasteurized substrate [pine bark and sand (3:1, by volume)]. The AMF treatment consisted of BioterraPLUS and MycorisePro and a noninoculated control (NonAMF). Fertilizer treatments included OSRF [Nitrell 5-3-4 (5N-1.3P-3.3K)] and ICRF [Osmocote 18-7-10 (18N-3.0P-8.3K)]. OSRF was tested at three rates: 8.3, 11.9, and 16.6 kg·m-3, which were respectively, 70%, 100%, and 140% of manufacturer's recommended rate, while ICRF was tested at two rates: 3.6 and 7.1 kg·m-3, which were, respectively, 50% and 100% of manufacturer's recommended rate. The P levels were equivalent between 70% and 140% OSRF and, respectively, 50% and 100% ICRF. Greatest growth [leaf, shoot, flower bud, and flower number; root, leaf, shoot, and total plant dry mass (DM); growth index; leaf area]; N, P, and K uptake; leaf chlorophyll; and plant marketability occurred with BioterraPLUS plants at 50% and 100% ICRF rate and MycorisePro at the 100% ICRF rate. Greater plant growth occurred with increasing fertility levels; however, plants at the 140% OSRF (same P level as 100% inorganic SRF) had poorest growth, in part due to high temperature. While AMF enhanced growth of plants with OSRF at all concentrations, better growth and marketability occurred with ICRF than OSRF plants inoculated with AMF. AMF plants at the 50% ICRF had comparable or better growth, higher N, P, and K and marketability than NonAMF plants at either 100% OSRF or ICRF. AMF were able to survive under high temperature and colonize plants grown from low to high fertility conditions. AMF inoculation had minimal effect on container leachate (pH and electrical conductivity). However, the larger-sized AMF plants at 100% ICRF rate had greater total leaf tissue N, P, and K, suggesting greater nutrient utilization—thus reduced potential risk for leachate runoff.

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Michele Bakacs, Amy Rowe, William T. Hlubik, and Jan Zientek

This article presents findings from the first 3 years of implementing an organic land care training program for landscapers, including landscaper attitudes, lessons learned, and the potential role of extension. Results of a needs assessment as well as discussions with organic practitioners provided evidence that New Jersey lacked in-depth training needed to assist practitioners in determining acceptable practices when offering organic services to their clientele. As a result, Rutgers University convened an organic land care working group and developed a certificate program for professionals with the long-term goal of promoting healthy soil, enhancing biodiversity, and reducing polluted runoff from managed landscapes. Thus far the program has been attended by 63 landscapers with 48 fulfilling the program requirements. Follow-up surveys with participants of the first 2 years showed that 38% of the 1163 acres (470.6 ha) under their management are either in transition or have been completely converted to organic management. Respondents reported a significant decrease in use of synthetic fertilizers and significant increase in use of organic fertilizer. Median synthetic pesticide usage decreased by 40%. Respondents reported since attending the program they were more effective at a number of practices including removing invasives and installing native plants, installing rain gardens, reducing stormwater runoff, and reducing irrigation. Focusing on the science, patience in transitioning, and understanding there are no “one size fits all” organic programs have been important lessons learned by experienced practitioners. Clientele acceptance, product efficacy, and finding skilled staff were cited as consistent challenges. These results indicate that extension can play a lead role in conducting applied research and providing relevant, effective educational programming for landscapers in the organic land care field.

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George Hochmuth, Terril Nell, J. Bryan Unruh, Laurie Trenholm, and Jerry Sartain

st. augustinegrass turf and an alternative residential landscape Crop Sci. 41 1889 1895 Evans, J., A. Regar, T. Ankersen, and T. Ruppert. (n.d.). Murky waters: Fertilizer ordinances and best management practices as policy tools for achieving water

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Michael A. Schnelle, Sharon L. von Broembsen, and Michael D. Smolen

A comprehensive educational program focusing on water quality protection was developed for the Oklahoma nursery industry. The program focused on best management practices to limit pesticides and nutrients in irrigation runoff and on capture and recycle technology as a pollution prevention strategy. Key professionals from the departments of entomology and plant pathology, biosystems and agricultural engineering, and horticulture formed a multidisciplinary team within the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service (OCES). During 1998, water quality workshops were conducted on-site throughout Oklahoma at leading nursery operations. These workshops were designed to highlight best management practices (BMPs) that were already in place as a foundation on which to implement additional BMPs with the assistance of the OCES team. Training workshops were augmented by written publications, by web-based information, and by videotape instruction. These provided for ongoing education beyond the formal grant period. The written materials included a water quality handbook for nurseries and a fact sheet on capturing and recycling irrigation runoff. The water quality handbook was also made available on the web and a website on disease management for nurseries using recycling irrigation was provided. The water quality video, highlighting successful growers, was designed to show aspects of both best management practices and capture and recycle technology. Results of these 3-year extension efforts will be discussed.