Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum coccodes, is a serious ripe tomato fruit rot disease. Genetic resistance to anthracnose is not available in commercial tomato cultivars, but has been reported in small-fruited Plant Introductions (P.I.), and with lesser intensity in a number of breeding lines. Transfer of high levels of resistance from these breeding lines or P.I.s to elite materials has proven difficult. Inheritance of resistance has been described as complex with at least six loci influencing resistance reactions. Segregating populations originating from a cross between a susceptible tomato breeding line and a large-fruited breeding line (88B147) with resistance derived from Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme P.I. 272636, were evaluated for anthracnose resistance. Analysis of anthracnose resistance in puncture-inoculated fruit indicated small, but significant, additive genetic effects for resistance. Additional populations were developed from crosses of a susceptible inbred processing tomato cultivar with: 1) the resistant P.I. 272636, 2) an unadapted small-fruited resistant line developed from P.I. 272636, and 3) the large-fruited breeding line 88B147, also with resistance derived from P.I. 272636. Small additive effects identified in large-fruited material, in comparison to the resistant P.I., suggests that resistance loci have been lost during germplasm development. This is consistent with the relatively larger lesions observed in large-fruited lines derived from P.I. 272636. Positive correlations were noted between small fruit size and high levels of anthracnose resistance. Identification of molecular markers linked to resistance genes in the respective populations will be discussed.
John R. Stommel and Kathleen G. Haynes
Wei Li, Rongcai Yuan, Jacqueline K. Burns, L.W. Timmer, and Kuang-Ren Chung
Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds infects citrus flower petals, causing brownish lesions, young fruit drop, production of persistent calyces, and leaf distortion. This suggests that hormones may be involved in symptom development. To identify the types of hormones, cDNA clones encoding proteins related to ethylene and jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) regulation, cell-wall modification, signal transduction, or fruit ripening were used to examine differential gene expressions in calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour) and/or `Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) after C. acutatum infection. Northern-blot analyses revealed that the genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase and 12-oxophytodienoate required for ethylene and JA biosynthesis, respectively, were highly up-regulated in both citrus species. Both gene transcripts increased markedly in petals, young fruit and stigmas, but not in calyces. The transcripts of the genes encoding IAA glucose transferase and auxin-responsive GH3-like protein, but not IAA amino acid hydrolyase, also markedly increased in both species 5 days after inoculation. The expansin and chitinase genes were slightly up-regulated, whereas the senescence-induced nuclease and ß-galactosidase genes were down-regulated in calamondin. No differential expression of transcripts was detected for the genes encoding expansin, polygalacturonase, and serine-threonine kinase in sweet orange. As compared to the water controls, infection of C. acutatum increased ethylene and IAA levels by 3- and 140-fold. In contrast, abscisic acid (ABA) levels were not significantly changed. Collectively, the results indicate that infection by C. acutatum of citrus flowers triggered differential gene expressions, mainly associated with IAA, ethylene, and JA production and regulation, and increased hormone concentrations, consistent with the hypothesis of the involvement of phytohormones in postbloom fruit drop.
Jun Song, Rujida Leepipattanawit, Weimin Deng, and Randolph M. Beaudry
Hexanal vapor inhibited hyphae growth of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and on apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) slices. After 48 hours exposure to 4.1 μmol·L-1 (100 ppm) hexanal, the hyphae growth of both fungi was about 50% that of untreated controls. At a concentration of 10.3 μmol·L-1 (250 ppm), neither fungus grew during the treatment period, however, some growth of both fungi occurred 120 hours after treatment. At concentrations of hexanal vapor of 18.6 μmol·L-1 (450 ppm) or more, the growth of both fungi ceased and the organisms were apparently killed, neither showing regrowth when moved to air. When fungi were allowed to germinate and grow for 48 hours in hexanal-free air, a subsequent 48-hour exposure to 10.3 μmol·L-1 hexanal slowed colony growth relative to controls for several days and a 48-hour exposure to 18.6 μmol·L-1 stopped growth completely. Concentrations of hexanal that inhibited fungal growth on PDA also retarded decay lesion development on `Golden Delicious' and on `Jonagold' apple slices. Hexanal was actively converted to aroma volatiles in `Jonagold' and `Golden Delicious' apple slices, with hexanol and hexylacetate production strongly enhanced after 20 to 30 hours treatment. A small amount of butylhexanoate and hexylhexanoate production was also noted. Within 16 hours after treatment, no hexanal could be detected emanating from treated fruit. Since hexanal was metabolized to aroma-related volatiles by the fruit slices, the possibility of hexanal being an essentially residue-less antifungal agent seems likely. The possibility of developing a system for treating apple slices with hexanal in modified-atmosphere packages was also examined. The permeability of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film to hexanal and hexylacetate was, respectively, about 500- and 1000-fold higher than LDPE permeability to O2. The permeability of both compounds increased exponentially with temperature, with hexanal permeability increased 6-fold while hexylacetate increased only 2.5-fold between 0 and 30 °C.
James C. Fulton, Francisco O. Holguin, Robert L. Steiner, and Mark E. Uchanski
Stip is regarded as a physiological disorder of pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) in which symptoms appear as brown, black, and yellow ovoid-shaped chlorotic and/or necrotic pod lesions ≈0.5 to 1.2 cm long and 0.5 cm wide ( Fulton and Uchanski, 2017
David J. Norman and Jianjun Chen
Xanthomonas development on poinsettia. In the first trial, the number of lesions was 85% and 93% lower on leaves treated with 25 and 75 m m TiO 2 , respectively, compared with those of the control plants. Table 1. Effect of TiO 2 on plant dry weight and
Ed Stover, Randall Driggers, Matthew L. Richardson, David G. Hall, Yongping Duan, and Richard F. Lee
markedly based on stage of leaf development when exposed to Xcc ( Gottwald and Graham, 1992 ; Graham et al., 1992 ; Vernière et al., 2003 ) and even relatively resistant material may show small lesions. Because wind-driven rain is the primary factor
Xiaoling He, Susan C. Miyasaka, Maureen M.M. Fitch, Sawsan Khuri, and Yun J. Zhu
complete block design. After inoculation, plantlets were observed daily for lesion initiation for 30 d. At 12 d, the lesion diameters were measured, averaged across three plantlets, and analyzed statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The general
Margaret T. Mmbaga, Lucas A. Mackasmiel, and Frank A. Mrema
, the development of root lesions from M. phaseolina is likely to affect plant growth by reducing water and nutrient uptake, especially in field plantings in soils with low fertility or under water stress with high soil temperatures ( Islam et al
Patrick J. Conner
the southeastern United States. Foliar and stem infections result in black circular lesions that under favorable conditions can result in severe leaf spotting, premature defoliation, and shoot death. Development of lesions on fruit shucks reduces yield
Ed Stover, Jack Hebb, Ron Sonoda, and Masoud Salyani
Wind-induced blemishing known as windscar and lesions from the disease melanose (caused by Diaporthe citri) are two of the most important causes of fresh grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) cullage in Florida. Copper hydroxide fungicides are the primary means of controlling melanose, but high air velocities from passing sprayers have been suspected of increasing windscar. In 1998 and 1999, airblast applications of Cu(OH)2 (1.7 kg·ha-1 Cu) were made at a range of early fruit development stages to a fresh grapefruit orchard in the Indian River region of Florida. These applications supplemented aerial sprays of Cu(OH)2 that were made uniformly across the entire experimental site at biweekly intervals beginning near full bloom. During the commercial harvest period fruit were sampled from three regions (interior, upper exterior, and lower exterior) of each treatment tree and were evaluated for percentage of fruit surface covered by windscar and severity of melanose. Airblast applications did not affect windscar in either year, but windscar was significantly greater from the upper exterior of the canopy, which is likely to experience the highest natural wind velocities. From these data, it appears unlikely that airblast applications significantly contribute to windscar of Indian River grapefruit. In 1998, no trees receiving airblast applications had significantly lower melanose incidence than the trees sprayed only via aircraft; however, trees receiving four airblast applications were scored as having higher apparent melanose on exterior samples than trees receiving most other treatments. This is consistent with high levels of Cu injury on these fruit which can superficially resemble melanose. Following treatment in 1999, trees receiving four airblast applications of Cu(OH)2 had significantly lower melanose scores than trees receiving either no or only early airblast applications, but were not significantly different from trees receiving a single spray 5.5 weeks postbloom. A computer model, which estimates Cu levels on fruit based on fruit growth, rainfall, and application parameters, indicated exterior fruit receiving four airblast sprays had >3 μg·cm-2 [Cu] for 40 days in 1998 but only 10 days in 1999, which reflects increased probability of Cu damage in 1998. It appears that aerial application supplemented by airblast merits further study as an economical means of melanose control.