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Martin M. Maboko and Christian P. Du Plooy

, but is typically between 1 and 3 mS·cm −1 ( Hashida et al., 2014 ; Rouphael and Colla, 2005 ). Nutrients can be applied to the growing medium through irrigation or applied on leaves as a foliar spray, which are both recognized by some authors as a

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Yang Gao and Deying Li

adjuvants. An adjuvant is a substance that is added to the spray tank to modify the activity of a.i. or spray characteristics and is one of the major technologies used to improve foliar fertilizer uptake ( Hazen, 2000 ). Adding humectants to slow down drying

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Paul W. Bosland

of resistant cultivars is the most desirable, sustainable, and environmentally safe disease control method from both an economic and an environmental perspective. ‘NuMex Vaquero’ is a phytophthora root rot and foliar blight-resistant, high

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Bruce W. Wood

are potentially met through several early spring foliar sprays each year ( Smith et al., 1979 ) by broadcast application of relatively large amounts of Zn fertilizers to soils ( Brooks, 1964 ) or by trunk implants or injection ( Worley et al., 1980

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Danijela Janjanin, Marko Karoglan, Mirjana Herak Ćustić, Marijan Bubola, Mirela Osrečak and Igor Palčić

, considering effect on grape amino acid content ( Garde-Cerdan et al., 2014 ). Foliar N application can also be considered as a tool for improvement of wine sensory characteristics since positive effect on grape volatile composition ( Garde-Ceradan et al., 2014

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Michael F. Polozola II, Daniel E. Wells, J. Raymond Kessler, Wheeler G. Foshee, Amy N. Wright and Bryan S. Wilkins

sandy loams and are typical of pecan orchards throughout the southeastern United States. Growers often experience difficulties maintaining recommended foliar phosphorus (P) levels in their orchard trees due to naturally low P in the soils and the nature

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Genhua Niu and Denise S. Rodriguez

chromatograph (Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA). Visual quality of the plants was assessed at the end of the experiment based on visual foliar salt damage on all plants. Each plant was given a score of 1 to 5, where 1 = over 50% foliar damage (salt damage: burning and

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Amanda J. Vance, Patrick Jones and Bernadine C. Strik

desirable, waxy bloom coating on blueberry fruit and decreases shelf life in blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry. Foliar Ca applied to strawberries has been shown to delay fruit harvest, reduce incidence of fruit rot and improve fruit firmness ( Cheour et

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Baolin Zhang and Douglas D. Archbold

A comparative study was performed to elucidate changes in the water relations of Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch. `BSP14' (FC) and F. virginiana (L.) Duch. `NCC85-13V' (FV), grown in containers in a greenhouse, in response to imposed water deficit stress and subsequent recovery. At incipient wilting, a reduction in osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψπ 100 of 0.42 MPa occurred in leaves of FC, while no change was found in FV. Leaf water potential (Ψ) isotherms revealed that as leaf Ψ and relative water content (RWC) declined, stressed FC plants maintained a higher turgor potential (ΨP) and lower osmotic potential (Ψπ) than nonstressed (control) plants, while there was no effect of drought stress on these relationships in the FV plants. From the isotherms, turgor loss was estimated to occur at a lower leaf Ψ and RWC in stressed FC plants than either in control FC plants or stressed and control FV plants. During a diurnal phase 36 hours after wilting, leaf Ψ, Ψπ and RWC of the FC selection were generally lower in stressed than in control plants, with differences ranging from 0.14 to 0.74 MPa, 0.28 to 0.47 MPa, and 1% to 8%, respectively. In the FV selection, Ψπ was 0.09 to 0.31 MPa lower in stressed than in control leaves, while the other characteristics were not affected. Leaf ΨP, of stressed FC plants was 0.09 to 0.27 MPa higher than controls during the dark period, but was similar during the day. When plants of both species were grown and stressed in the same container, FV plants wilted ≈4 days earlier than FC plants, and foliar Ψπ 100 of FC was 0.35 MPa lower than that of FV at incipient wilting. The isothermal relationships between leaf Ψ and Ψπ 100 indicated FC had a Ψπ 100 ≈ 0.25 MPa lower than FV at a Ψ <1.5 MPa. This study provided evidence for greater osmotic adjustment in response to imposed water deficit stress in a selection of F. chiloensis than in one of F. virginiana.

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Martin M. Maboko, Christian Phillipus Du Plooy and Silence Chiloane

environment under which sprays are applied, or the characteristics of the plant to which the spray is applied. Table 6. Effect of nutrient concentration and foliar fertilizer application on cucumber yield at the Agricultural Research Council-Vegetable and