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Bernadine C. Strik, Amanda Vance, David R. Bryla, and Dan M. Sullivan

., 2003b ; Strik et al., 2017a ; Williamson et al., 2006 ), which may affect soil properties and nutrient availability. Growers are inclined to use plant or animal-based composts in organic production systems. Compost can release 3% to 10% of total N for

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Abbey C. Noah, Helen T. Kraus, and Paige L. Herring

observation). Further composting of these swine lagoon solids may improve nutrient value by binding mineral nutrients into stable organic structures ( Burton and Turner, 2003 ) as well as eliminating the hard aggregates formed in the drying process. If the

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Yin-Tung Wang and Thomas M. Blessington

1 Assistant Professor. 2 Professor and Center Director. Poinsettia cuttings were donated by Paul Ecke Poinsettias, Encinitas, Calif. Composted cotton burrs and partial financial support were provided by Back to Earth Resources, Dallas, Texas

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Rahmatallah Gheshm and Rebecca Nelson Brown

, 1998a ; Sinkevičienė et al., 2009 ; Skroch et al., 1992 ). Gheshm and Brown (2018) reported that a 1-inch-thick layer of multisource compost applied to soil in a high tunnel in Rhode Island increased soil temperatures relative to bare soil during

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Robert R. Tripepi, Mary W. George, K. Amanda Linskey, John E. Lloyd, and Jennifer L. Van Wagoner

fertilizer spike (113 g) inserted into the root ball in 2002 or one Ross Gro-Stake (Eko Compost, Missoula, MT) 10N–4.3P–8.3K Evergreen fertilizer spike (113 g) per ball in 2003 with a spike inserted at the outer edge of the ball, and mulch mixed 1:1 (by

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Angela Y.Y. Kong, Cynthia Rosenzweig, and Joshua Arky

providing good moisture holding and aeration properties. However, these characteristics also mean that the substrate has limited nutrient holding and retention capacities. After the nutrients in the organic component (e.g., compost) of the substrate are

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Elsa S. Sánchez, Ermita Hernández, Mark L. Gleason, Jean C. Batzer, Mark A. Williams, Timothy Coolong, and Ricardo Bessin

( Clark et al., 1999 ; Pimentel et al., 2005 ), in part because nutrient sources generated on the farm, such as compost, release nutrients slowly. Nutrient availability is also unpredictable; for example, N mineralization rates depend on soil temperature

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Paige L. Herring, Abbey C. Noah, and Helen T. Kraus

, providing no nutrients as media, and is acidic. As a result, much research has focused on alternative resources for peat in the greenhouse industry ( Abad et al., 2001 ; Ostos et al., 2008 ; Raviv et al., 1998 ). Composts have also proved to suppress soil

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Leonor F.S. Leandro, Lisa M. Ferguson, Frank J. Louws, and Gina E. Fernandez

growers, including those who desire to implement organic systems, have expressed interest in management systems that are not dependent on chemical soil fumigation but rely on biologically based approaches, such as the use of cover crops and compost

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Kristin L. Getter and Dale W. Rozeboom

make peat more costly than local substrates due to long distance transportation. For this, and other reasons, recent research has focused on peat alternatives or extenders. Such products have included composted dairy manure ( Shober et al., 2010 , 2011