Field studies were conducted to evaluate the tolerance of several pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars to the herbicide clomazone. Peppers tested included the bell cultivars Yolo Wonder and Jupiter; the banana cultivar Sweet Banana; and the pungent cultivars Jalapeno and Red Chili. Treatments were clomazone at 0.56 or 1.12 kg·ha-1 a.i. applied either preplant incorporated (PPI), pretransplant (PRE-T), or posttransplant (POS-T) on the day of transplanting, plus a nontreated control. Clomazone at 1.12 kg·ha-1 a.i. PPI and PRE-T significantly injured (bleaching or chlorosis of foliage) `Sweet Banana' (40% and 20%, respectively) and `Red Chili' (30% and 18%, respectively) in 1993 in early-season evaluations, but this injury was transient and did not significantly affect total fruit number or yield. Injury to any cultivar from POS-T clomazone at 0.56 and 1.12 kg·ha-1 a.i. was nonsignificant. Overall, tolerance to clomazone was excellent for all treatments and across all cultivars. Yield was not reduced significantly by any treatment. Chemical names used: 2-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyl]-4, 4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone (clomazone).
`Celebrate 2' Poinsettias were grown for 8 weeks in a controlled-environment growth room until first signs of bract coloration. In growth stage I (GSI; weeks 1 through 4) low, medium, and high N rates (25, 75, and 125 mg N/liter, respectively) were applied by subirrigation (no leaching). Following floral induction [growth stage II (GSII), weeks 5 to 8], there were nine treatments: all possible combinations of the three N rates in GSI plus three rates (75, 125, and 175 mg N/liter) in GSII. Although >80% of shoot dry weight and >90% of total leaf area developed during growth GSII, reaching an acceptable plant size by week 8 depended on receiving adequate fertilization in growth GSI. In contrast, leaf chlorosis, noted in plants receiving the lowest rate in GSI, was rapidly reversed by increasing the N rate in GSII. Quadratic regression equations fitted to shoot dry weight and leaf area data predicted that using 125 mg N/liter in both growth stages gave maximum responses at week 8. However, using 75 mg N/liter in GSI and 125 mg N/liter in GSII also produced acceptable growth in poinsettias. Our results suggest that some growth restriction imposed by N availability during the first 4 weeks of growth may be acceptable and perhaps desirable to reduce growth regulator use and the environmental impact of overfertilization.
A computer model was used to predict irrigation rates and numbers of emitters or microsprayers required to trickle irrigate Redskin/Nemaguard peach trees. Irrigation rates were 0, 50%, and 100% of the predicted requirement based on a crop coefficient of 50, 80, 100, 80, and 50 percent of pan evaporation for the tree's canopy area for May, June, July, August and Sept. respectively. Full irrigation (100% of predicted) was applied through 6, 8L/hr emitters or one 48L/hr microsprayer. Half the predicted rate was applied through 6, 4L/hr emitters or 1 24L/hr microsprayer. Control trees received no supplemental irrigation. Microsprayers height was adjusted to wet a surface area comparable to the 6 emitters. There was no significant difference in fruit size or yield based on emitter vs microsprayers, but fruit size and total yield was increased in direct proportion to irrigation rate. There was no treatment effect on tree pruning weights. Moisture measurements indicated that trees de-watered the soil efficiently enough that water never moved below the 30 cm level in spite of the fact that up to 260 liters per tree per day were applied in mid-summer.
Commercial N fertilizer formulations, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrates (15-0-14 and 13-0-44) applied at 84 and 168 kg N/ha in 3 or 5 split applications did not affect total marketable yield of dry onion. Application frequencies causing an increase in total amount of N applied during the spring months (Feb.-Apr.) increased marketable yield by 5 MT/ha. Bulb decay was the highest when ammonium nitrate was applied, whereas the least number of decayed bulbs resulted from sodium nitrate applications. Plants grown with potassium nitrate (13-0-44) were most susceptible to cold injury. Ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate applications produced the highest percentage of onions that bolted. The lowest percentage of plants showing bolting incidence resulted from calcium nitrate applications. Bolting of onions was closely associated with rapid growth and increased onion size. However, cold injury and bulb decay were not influenced by these growth factors.
Nitrification in a pine bark medium in response to a range of applied NH4-N levels (25, 100, and 200 ppm) was studied. Medium solution NH4-N concentrations at the 25 ppm N treatment decreased from 30 ppm at day 1 to 0 ppm at day 40. Ammoniacal-N concentration values decreased from 64 to 6 ppm and from 105 to 20 ppm for the 100- and 200-ppm N treatments, respectively, by day 60. Rapid increases in medium solution NO3-N concentrations coincided with these NH4-N decreases, resulting in low medium solution NH4-N:NO3-N ratios. During the periods of NO3-N increase, medium solution pH decreased 0.3, 0.7, and 1.3 units for the 25-, 100-, and 200-ppm N treatments, respectively. Similarly treated bark without plants was used to determine a NO3-N accumulation rate (NAR). NAR data indicated that the NH4-N supply of the 100- and 200-ppm N treatments exceeded the oxidative capacity of nitrifiers during a 96-hr period.
Various rates of ancymidol granular incorporated, granular broadcast, soil drench, and foliar spray treatments were tested on 7 breeding plant species. Generally, treatment of media affected plant height more than foliar sprays. Media treatments reduced height linearly, with increasing rates reducing plant height. Effects were similar for Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex Roem. & Schultz and Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey plants. Height of Targetes erecta L. plants was controlled most effectively by 311 to 622 mg a.i. m−3 drenches or granular incorporated. Begonia semperflorens - cultorum Hort., and Antirrhinum majus L. plant height was best controlled with granular incorporated ancymidol at rates of 155 to 622 mg a.i. and 311 to 1243 mg a.i. m−3, respectively. Germination of Tagetes and Pelargonium seed was unaffected by granular incorporated ancymidol at 78 to 311 mg a.i. m−3. Chemical names used: a-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol).
Excessive fertilization produces high soluble salts, resulting in root damage and poor quality foliage. Although usually determined by mixing soil with water, conductivity also can be determined by mixing with leachate obtained by pouring water through the potting medium.
Mature trees of Stark Redgold nectarines grown in silt loam soil in the Po Valley were tested at five fertilization regimes and compared to untreated control: N1 (100 kg N/ha), N1 (100 kg N/ha, split 60% in spring and 40%. in postharvest), N2 (200 kg N/ha), N1 (100 kg N/ha) + K (150 kg K2 0/ha), N2 (200 kg N/ha) + K (150 kg K2 O/ha). The annual distribution in spring was equally split before full bloom and at fruit set.
The data collected over the three trial years show no differences as compared to control in yield and fruit size. N2 delayed ripening and decreased fruit quality. Leaf mineral composition was affected by potassium; maximun N induced leaf accumulation of N-NH4 The high concentration of K in leaf tissues was correlated to the yellow color of the leaf blade. Total leaf chlorophyll content was measured by an Spad-502 chlorophyll meter (Minolta Corp.) and compared to that measured by conventional technique (Arnon method). The overall findings suggest the amount of N used in peach fertilization can be reduced.