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extension staff and faculty to provide research-based gardening information to the public. The EMG training program has spread to all 50 states, the District of Columbia and four Canadian provinces ( National Master Gardener Committee, 2013 ). Today, most

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irrigation practices and technologies in the residential landscape has been identified as an opportunity for water conservation, and therefore, people who use irrigation at home represent an important audience for the Cooperative Extension Service ( Warner et

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Abstract

Change is such an ingrained precept of extension doctrine that it rarely elicits a rebuttal. Yet, the change we generally agree upon is change by others—our clientele or target audience—not ourselves. This article is about change within a publicly supported institution, the Cooperative Extension Service.

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The traditional extension education model ( Bohlen et al., 1960 ) has proven successful at disseminating information and fostering adoption ( Jones et al., 2007 ). Although effective, there are challenges to traditional live educational programs and

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The plan to develop a GCoP was generated by the Extension and Outreach Education Committee of the NGWI. The NGWI is a national organization which collaborates to prioritize research for grape products. Comprised of leaders from all sectors of the U

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Extension services around the globe face increasingly limited financial support, yet rural populations require services, training and access to information. In sub-Saharan African countries the demands are particularly severe. Farmer to extension staff ratios are generally over 2000 to 1 and resource constraints are severe, which greatly restricts outreach efforts. Examples are presented of recent innovations from the southern Africa country of Malawi. These include collaboration across private and public institutions. Some extension agents have shifted from a transferring technology mode to a catalytic role where agents help link up diverse stakeholders, from farmers and researchers to potential buyers and input suppliers. Extension has helped farmers respond to new market opportunities, including a food colorant, the paprika pepper (Capsicum annuum), and a multi-use grain and vegetable, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Product quality is critical for these markets and industry organizations have invested in training that involves government extension staff, private crop advisors and farmers. A collaborative team approach across industry, nongovernmental organizations and government services has facilitated farmer access to inputs, new cultivars and training in improved crop management and post-harvest techniques. Many challenges remain, such as outreach to farmers located far from infrastructure and those with limited formal education or no experience with entrepreneurship. Extension must continue to reinvent itself to reach all farmers.

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Authors would like to thank Ohio Nursery and Landscape Association for their generous financial support and Ohio State University Extension administration for their vision and support. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part

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Available funding for extension programming significantly decreased during recent recessionary periods [2008–11 ( Floyd, 2014 ; Oliff et al., 2013 ; Serenari et al., 2013 ; Warner et al., 2014 )], and in many cases, has not returned to pre

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mechanisms of resistance to the corn earworm, including husk thickness, husk texture, and presence or absence of flag leaves ( Collins and Kempton, 1917 ). Longer husk extension past the ear tip has been proposed as a resistance mechanism either by increasing

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” on the web search engine Google (Mountain View, CA) returns about 200,000 results. University and state extension services have worked hard to present reliable research-based rootstock and cultivar information, but most of their sites are static

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