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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, and J. Scott McElroy

directly inhibits the enzyme p -hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD; EC, a precursor to plastoquinone and tocopherols. The enzyme phytoene desaturase requires plastoquinone as a cofactor for converting phytoene to ζ-carotene, which

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J. Scott McElroy and Greg K. Breeden

evaluated for use in turfgrass. Mesotrione inhibits p -hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC, a precursor to plastoquinone and tocopherols ( Mitchell et al., 2001 ; Pallett et al., 1998 ; Secor, 1994 ). The predominant symptom of mesotrione

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Loretta Bacchetta, Maria Aramini, Claudia Bernardini, and Eddo Rugini

. amygdalus B amigdalus) cultivar Plant Sci. Lett. 28 273 281 Scortichini, M. 2002 Bacterial canker and decline of European hazelnut Plant Dis. 86 34 38 Sivakumar, G. Bacchetta, L. 2006 α-Tocopherol

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Iro Kokkinou, Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Dimitra Varela

withstand prolonged drought by increasing the concentration of a-tocopherol, carnosic acid, and carotenoid concentration in the leaves. The production of these antioxidants prevents the oxidative damage in the plants. Salvia fruticosa. The substrate moisture

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Muttalip Gündoğdu, Tuncay Kan, and Mustafa Kenan Gecer

.M. 2003 Identification and quantification of carotenoids, tocopherols and chlorophylls in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables Phytochem. 62 939 947 Catignani, G.L. 1983 Simultaneous determination of retinol and a-tocopherol in serum or plasma by liquid

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Karl Guillard and John C. Inguagiato

that SWE can enhance certain metabolic processes or compounds that promote stress tolerance in turfgrass plants, such as photochemical efficiency, α-tocopherol, superoxide dismuatase and catalase activity, CO 2 exchange rates, total carotenoids

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James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, Matthew T. Elmore, Gregory K. Breeden, and Gregory R. Armel

). Mesotrione, topramezone, and tembotrione are herbicides that affect carotenoid biosynthesis by inhibiting HPPD (EC, a precursor to plastoquinone and tocopherols ( Bollman et al., 2008 ; Grossman and Ehrhardt, 2007 ; Mitchell et al., 2001

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Noriko Ohtake, Masaharu Ishikura, Hiroshi Suzuki, Wataru Yamori, and Eiji Goto

integration. Data are means ± se (n = 6). Abbreviations as in Fig. 1 . Nutritional quality. The contents of protein, fat, carbohydrate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol were similar among W24, RB24, and R12/B12. On the other hand, the contents of

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Ryohei Koyama, Hiromichi Itoh, Syuji Kimura, Ai Morioka, and Yuichi Uno

than any other food ( Gupta and Prakash, 2008 ). Plants can synthesize some antioxidants including, for example, AsA, glutathione, α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and polyphenol to protect themselves against oxidative damage caused by environmental stressors

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Mark W. Farnham and Dean A. Kopsell

Vitamin synthesis in plants: Tocopherols and carotenoids Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57 711 738 Demmig-Adams, B. Gilmore, A.M. Adams W.W. III 1996 In vivo functions of carotenoids in higher plants FASEB J