). The broad sense heritability was estimated on a genotype mean basis ( Fehr, 1987 ), as where σ g 2 is the genotypic variance, σ gy 2 is the genotype-by-year interaction variance, σ e 2 is the environmental variance, r is the number of replications
Guo-Liang Jiang, Laban K. Rutto, and Shuxin Ren
S.J. Browning, T.P. Riordan, R.K. Johnson, and J. Johnson-Cicalese
Buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm] is a drought-resistant, dioecious species, native to the Central Great Plains, which shows excellent potential as a low-maintenance turfgrass. Although buffalograss can be propagated vegetatively, there is a need for seeded turf-type cultivars. To assist in developing seeded cultivars, heritabilities of turf characteristics were estimated. Heritabilities from maternal half-sib analyses ranged from h2 = 0.04 ± 0.03 for the 1988 uniformity rating to h2 = 0.62 ± 0.26 for the 1989 spring color rating. Heritability estimates calculated from offspring-parent regression were also variable and generally lower than maternal half-sib analysis. The results suggest that some turf characteristics are highly heritable and that growing conditions markedly affect heritability estimates.
Iban Eduardo, Pere Arús, Antonio José Monforte, Javier Obando, Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Juan Antonio Martínez, Antonio Luís Alarcón, Jose María Álvarez, and Esther van der Knaap
. Heritability (h 2 ) was estimated in each location independently from the ANOVA: where NIL i is the effect of the NIL, and the estimate of h 2 was calculated as where V b and V t are the between-family (genetic variance) and total variances
Loong S. Chang, Amy Iezzoni, and Gerald Adams
Heritability and the genetic and environmental variance components of resistance to the canker-causing pathogen Leucostoma persoorrii were estimated in a population of diverse peach (Prunus persica L.)-genotypes. Disease resistance was measured as the length of necrotic tissue, i.e., canker length, following artificial inoculation in the field. Genetic and environmental variations were partitioned as variance components of the linear statistical model. Heritability was estimated by regressing average performance of seedlings on performance of their maternal parent. The genetic variance was highly significant, and the heritability for canker necrotic length was relatively high (0.72), suggesting that it should be possible to select L. persoonii -resistant individuals within the population.
I-C Wen, W.B. Sherman, and K.E. Koch
Peach-to-nectarine mutations are associated with broad pleiotropic effects. The present study addresses the heritability of nectarine-specific effects in three hybrid families. A comparison of peach and nectarine siblings showed that nectarine fruit were smaller (less fresh weight), rounder, darker, redder, and had higher levels of sugars and organic acids. These heritable characteristics are similar to effects of spontaneous peach-to-nectarine mutations described previously.
J.W. Gonzales, D.P. Coyne, D.T. Lindgren, D. Schaaf, and K. M. Eskridge
The potato leafhopper (PLH), Empoasca fabae Harris is the most important Empoasca species attacking dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in North America. The objective of this study was to determine the heritability (h2) of PLH injury based on parent-offspring regression analysis of F3 means on individual F2 plants derived from crosses of pinto `Sierra' (resistant) × great northern `Starlight' (susceptible), and black bean `Tacarigua' (resistant) × `Starlight' (susceptible). Low narrow-sense heritability values of 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.28 ± 0.10, respectively, were obtained for the above crosses. The low narrow-sense heritability estimates indicated large environmental effects on the expression of PLH injury in dry beans. An allelic test showed that both resistant parents possessed the same genes for resistance.
Qiang Yao, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith
The Oregon State Univ. breeding program is developing improved hazelnut cultivars for the kernel market. Most traits of interest are quantitative, yet there is little information available on their heritability. In this study, the heritability of 10 morphological and 4 phenological traits was estimated by regression of offspring means on midparent values. Seedlings from 35 crosses among 41 parents made in 1988 and 1989 were used. The parents represented the wide genetic diversity used in the breeding program. Estimates were all high, ranging from 0.56 for amount of kernel fiber and 0.58 for time of catkin elongation to 0.87 for percent kernel and 0.89 for nut depth.
Valdomiro A.B. de Souza, David H. Byrne, and Jeremy F. Taylor
Heritability estimates are useful to predict genetic progress among offspring when the parents are selected on their performance, but they also provide information about major changes in the amount and nature of genetic variability through generations. Genetic and phenotypic correlations, on the other hand, are useful for better planning of selection programs. In this research, seedlings of 39 families resulting from crosses among 27 peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars and selections were evaluated for date of full bloom (DFB), date of ripening (DR), fruit period development (FDP), flower density (FD), node density (ND), fruit density (FRD), fruit weight (WT), soluble solids content (SS), apical protuberance (TIP), red skin color (BLUSH), and shape (SH) in 1993 and 1994. The data were analyzed using the mixed linear model. The best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) was used to estimate fixed effects and predict breeding values (BV). Restricted maximum likelihood (REML) was used to estimate variance components, and a multiple-trait model to estimate genetic and phenotypic covariances between traits. The data indicates high heritability for DFB, DR, FDP, and BLUSH, intermediate heritability for WT, TIP, and SH, and low heritability for FD, ND, FRD, and SS. They also indicate year effect as a major environmental component affecting seedling performance. High correlation estimates were found between some traits, but further analysis is needed to determine their significance.
Freddy Mora, Cristóbal M. Concha, and Carlos R. Figueroa
, 2014 ; Santos et al., 2011 ). Threshold models have been reported to be useful for the genetic evaluation of categorical traits ( Sorensen et al., 1994 ), enabling the estimation of genetic parameters, including heritability and genetic correlations
Long Ma, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Huangjun Lu, and Ronald Cherry
these two modes of pollination. The objectives of this study were to compare seed set of common carpetgrass under self-pollination and open pollination and to estimate heritabilities of seed set, number of branches per inflorescence, and number of