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amount, 90 control plants were randomly selected for transfer to the greenhouse (three plants from each of 10 controls for each of the three harvest dates). Ex vitro transfer. Shoots were transferred into 288-celled trays containing Vergro Container Mix A

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10 µM IAA. Medium pH was adjusted to 5.8. After 4 weeks, shoots were transferred ex vitro and acclimatized in growing media (2 peat:1 vermiculite, v:v) in 50-cell trays and placed under intermittent mist (10-s duration at 10-min intervals

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micropropagation could lead to a high proliferation rate like in other Mediterranean native species ( Papafotiou and Martini, 2016 ; Papafotiou et al., 2013 ). Further, the use of seedlings for either in vitro or ex vitro propagation could enhance the higher

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excised shoots; it produced a high percent of rooting and healthy and the longest roots (3.5 cm) ( Figs. 4A and 5 ). Fig. 4. Effect of IBA and NAA on inducing rooting from shoots and plantlets in ex vitro condition. ( A ) Rooting from shoots at different

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contribution of NaCl to better proliferation and rooting. Finally, various peat and perlite mixtures were examined for ex vitro acclimatization and establishment to develop an efficient micropropagation protocol for commercial use. Materials and Methods Effect

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without support are suggested for the fast and uniform growth of seedlings. It was expected that by liquid culture, the period from seed sowing to ex vitro could be 1.5 months shorter than the traditional solid culture. Literature Cited

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Hosta ×hybrid Tratt. `Blue Cadet' and Hosta tokudama Tratt. `Newberry Gold' were micropropagated in shaken liquid culture and on agar media, in conventional vessels and vessels modified for ventilation in vitro. Acclimatization under intermittent mist and growth in an outdoor nursery during the late spring and summer were monitored by dry weight analysis of sample plants every 4 days for a 60-day period (ex vitro growth). Results for `Newberry Gold' were 1) in vitro shoot growth was greater in liquid than agar culture, regardless of vessel; 2) shoots from agar or liquid culture grew at similar rates ex vitro; 3) ex vitro root growth was greater for liquid than agar cultured plants, regardless of vessel type. Results for `Blue Cadet' were 1) in vitro and ex vitro shoot growth was greater in liquid than agar culture regardless of vessel type and 2) ex vitro root growth was greatest for liquid cultured plants from conventional vessels. Ventilated vessels were generally beneficial for agar but not liquid culture. Benefits of liquid culture for micropropagation of Hosta found in vitro are at least maintained and sometimes enhanced during ex vitro growth in the mist bed and nursery.

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dependent on medium strength and the type and concentration of auxins. Regenerated plantlets of D. ombet were acclimatized to ex vitro conditions ( Fig. 2C and D ), and a 95% survival rate for the plantlets was achieved after 8 weeks. Table 2. Effect of MS

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ex vitro axillary buds ( Al-Qudah et al., 2011 ) and cryopreservation ( Rabba’a et al., 2012 ). It has also been reported that micropropagation of the ornamental medicinal Teucrium fruticans from shoot-tip explants ( Frabetti et al., 2009 ) and of

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The structure and quality of the adventitious root system formed on a microcutting stem is crucial to the successful acclimation, survival, and ultimate performance of micropropagated plants. Despite increasing evidence that the rooting method impacts on the character of the framework root system, very little research has elucidated the consequences of standard rooting methods on plant quality and performance. Root initiation on microcuttings is handled by a wide range of strategies in commercial practice. In comparison to in vitro roots, ex vitro roots have smaller root diameters, larger vascular diameters, greater length, more branch root development, and root hairs. One important microenvironmental parameter - light - was investigated to determine its contribution to root character. Typically, in vitro root systems are exposed to light throughout the root initiation period. Parallel treatments were established of in vitro light and dark rooting and ex vitro rooting of four woody species. Regardless of light exposure, the overall diameter of adventitious roots was larger for in vitro treatments than the ex vitro treatment. Vascular development was significantly more advanced ex vitro. These results suggest that light is not a major influence contributing to the differences between ex vitro and in vitro root character.

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