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Yujie Yang, Donglin Zhang, Zhihui Li, Xiaoling Jin, and Jinying Dong

shoot, cm), number of shoots (>5 mm long), and average shoot length (centimeters) were recorded. Effect of rooting hormone on root induction. Terminal shoots were used to induce roots on 1/4 MS with IBA at 2.07–8.29 µM or NAA (Sigma Chemical Co.) at 2

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Arthur Q. Villordon, Don R. La Bonte, Nurit Firon, Yanir Kfir, Etan Pressman, and Amnon Schwartz

soils or delays its establishment until environmental conditions improve. The resulting canopies under the two scenarios appear similar; however, root development is profoundly different. Yield variability is likely a function of variability in early

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Arthur Villordon, Jeffrey C. Gregorie, and Don LaBonte

). However, it is possible to increase Pi recovery in the range of 50% to 70% by optimizing application amounts based on critical soil Pi thresholds and optimization of placement relative to the root zone ( Roberts and Johnston, 2015 ). Therefore, even though

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Ana V. de Souza, José E.B.P. Pinto, Suzan K.V. Bertolucci, Ricardo M. Corrêa, Larissa C. do B. Costa, and William E. Dyer

considerable, owing to the antiinflammatory, anesthetic, and healing effects on bruises, sprains, and insect bites. Vegetative propagation of arnica using cuttings is somewhat troublesome because rooting is difficult. Furthermore, sexual reproduction is

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Thomas E. Marler

the neighbor’s fitness through altruism ( Axelrod and Hamilton, 1981 ). The most prevalent response variables in this body of research are various root growth traits. Other responses to belowground neighbor identity reported to date include plant

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

yields observed in perennial red raspberry production systems ( Alvarado-Raya et al., 2007 ; Darnell et al., 2006 ). This may be from disturbance of the root system during digging and shipment from the nursery, which can lead to significant root loss

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Aekaterini N. Martini, Maria Papafotiou, and Stavros N. Vemmos

, 2009b ). The multiplication of microshoots was successful ( Papafotiou and Martini, 2009a , 2009b ), but their rooting ability was low ( Martini and Papafotiou, 2009 ). Thus, to develop an efficient micropropagation protocol for × M. florentina , the

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Meijun Zhang, Duanduan Zhao, Zengqiang Ma, Xuedong Li, and Yulan Xiao

, especially α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) added to the rooting medium. Tissue-cultured plantlets use the sugar in the medium as a carbon source, high light intensity is usually not necessary, and small airtight culture vessels must be used to avoid

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Cristian Silvestri, Gianmarco Sabbatini, Federico Marangelli, Eddo Rugini, and Valerio Cristofori

postexposure effect of wolfberry varieties on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and the nonuniformity of the explants used for rooting induction. On the contrary, numerous papers have described regeneration by adventitious shoot organogenesis and somatic

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Melody Reed Richards and Larry A. Rupp

(1981) observed rooting on 20% of mound layered and 71% of trench layered 1-year-old maple seedlings. Although trench layering had a higher rooting percentage, it is a very labor intensive propagation technique. Micropropagation of bigtooth maple