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T.M. Gradziel and Dechun Wang

Rate of brown rot lesion development following inoculation with Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) honey varied within clingstone peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) germplasm evaluated in 1990 and 1991. High levels of resistance were identified in selections derived from the Brazilian clingstone peach cultivar Bolinha. Resistance appeared to be limited to the epidermal tissue. No relation was detected between brown rot resistance and concentration of phenolic compounds or polyphenol oxidase activity in the susceptible California germplasm. An inverse relation was observed between disease severity and rating for phenolic-related discoloration when `Bolinha' derived selections were analyzed. A moderate positive correlation was observed for all germplasm tested between genotype means for phenolic content and enzymatic browning. Any causal relationship, if it exists, between phenolic content and brown rot resistance is obscured by an array of physical and chemical changes in the maturing fruit.

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Lihua Fan, Jun Song, and Randolph Beaudry

Hexanal vapor is a natural, metabolizable fungicide that inhibits fungal activity and enhances the aroma biosynthesis in sliced apple fruit. Whole apple fruit were inoculated at two points per fruit with Penicillium expansum at a concentration of 0.5 × 105 spore/ml and treated with hexanal vapors. Inoculated fruit were exposed to hexanal for 48 hr and kept for another 72 hr in hexanal-free air at 22°C. Treatments included 8.2–12.3 μmol·L–1 (200–300 ppm), 14.5-18.6 μmol·L–1 (350–450 ppm), and 24.8-28.9 μmol·L–1 (600–700 ppm), each with an air control. At a concentration of 200–300 ppm hexanal, there was no fungal growth during treatment, but lesion development was evident on 100% of the treated fruit following cessation of treatment. After 72 hr holding in air, lesion diameter was significantly smaller for treated fruit. When inoculated apple fruit were exposed to 350–450 ppm and 600–700 ppm hexanal vapors, the decay rate was 44.7% and 23.9%, respectively, while the decay rate of inoculated control apple fruit was 100% and 98%, respectively, after 72 hr holding in air. The development of aroma volatiles was investigated for both treated and untreated whole apple fruit. Hexanal was actively converted to aroma volatiles by `Golden Delicious' fruit and there was no detectable hexanal emanations. The amount of hexylacetate, hexylbutanoate, hexylhexanoate, hexylpropionate, butylhexanoate, and hexyl-2-methybutanoate were about 2- to 4-fold higher in treated apple fruit than in untreated apple fruit. `Mutsu' apple fruit were treated with 350–450 ppm hexanal for 48 hr and processed into apple sauce within 4 hr. An informal sensory evaluation for processed `Mutsu' apple revealed no apparent flavor difference between treated and control fruit sauce.

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Krista C. Shellie

Green mold, a predominant disease of citrus fruit, develops when spores of Penicillium digitatum infect extant wounds in fruit epidermal tissue. Development of green mold during shipping limits the distance grapefruit can be surface transported. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether altering the atmosphere during refrigerated storage could suppress development of green mold. In the first two experiments, growth of green mold was evaluated after fruit were stored in ultra-low oxygen (0.05 or 1 kPa) at 14, 16, or 18 °C for up to 21 days. In the last two experiments, grapefruit were stored for 14 or 21 d at 12, 13, or 14 °C in atmospheres containing 2, 5, or 10 kPa oxygen with or without 2, 5, 10, or 20 kPa carbon dioxide. In all experiments, grapefruit were inoculated with 10 or 20 μL of a spore suspension of P. digitatum. Decay progression after storage was monitored by measuring the diameter of the lesion in cm at the demarcated site of inoculation or by subjectively rating percent decayed fruit surface area. Grapefruit not inoculated with P. digitatum had no visible symptoms of green mold. Grapefruit stored under controlled atmosphere had less fruit surface covered with mycelium (5% to 64%) than grapefruit stored in air. Inoculated grapefruit stored in 0.05 kPa oxygen for up to 14 d at 14 or 18 °C had no visible symptoms of green mold upon removal from cold storage, but developed a characteristic green mold lesion after 5 additional days of storage in air at ambient temperature. Results suggest that refrigerated controlled-atmosphere storage combined with wax and a fungicide can enhance control of green mold during shipping.

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Oleg Daugovish and Doug Gubler

Strawberry anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum may kill strawberry plants or reduce plant vigor and marketable yield, resulting in multimillion dollar losses to strawberry industry. The fungus is often carried with transplants from nurseries to production fields undetected. The studies in one summer and two winter seasons near Oxnard, Calif., evaluated 30-second pre-plant dipping in ten fungicide solutions or water washing of transplants inoculated with C. acutatum as a means of reducing infection and improving fruit yield. In summer-planted `Baeza,' the pathogen caused severe die-back and reduced marketable fruit yield 89% in inoculated, untreated controls compared to non-inoculated plants while plants dipped in Switch (cyprodynil + fludioxynil) at 0.38 g/L had 33% yield reduction. Other fungicides provided even less protection, resulting in 53% to 89% yield losses. During cooler winter seasons the pathogen remained latent and lesions appeared on `Camarosa' when the day-night air temperatures reached 16 °C or more, 7–14 days after rain. None of the treatments reduced fruit lesion development, however, among plants dipped in strobilurin fungicides only 3% had C. acutatum symptoms (including early die-back) as opposed to 26% in inoculated, untreated controls. Plants dipped in Switch, Quadris (azoxystrobin), or Pristine (pyraclostrobin + boscalid) yielded similar to non-inoculated, untreated controls in 2003 and 10% to 12% more in 2005. These studies showed that strobilurin fungicides did not prevent fruit infection (indicating need for foliar in-season control) but improved marketable yield compared to the inoculated, untreated plants. Temperatures over 16 °C and precipitation may significantly increase disease development.

Open access

Douglas A. Phillips, Philip F. Harmon, James W. Olmstead, Natalia A. Peres, and Patricio R. Munoz

between the two experiments in this study in the development of lesions on certain cultivars. In the first experiment, the mean number of lesions and AUDPC on ‘Flicker’ was not significantly different from certain other cultivars, but in the second

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James S. Busse, Senay Ozgen, and Jiwan P. Palta*

Calcium deficiency in the potato shoot results in sub-apical necrosis. This is a physiological condition whereby necrotic lesions form a few millimeters below the shoot apex ultimately causing shoot tip senescence, loss of apical dominance, and the release of axillary buds. Using a Dark Red Norland tissue culture system, we studied the relationship of root zone calcium levels to shoot tip maintenance. Root zone calcium levels lower than 50 ppm resulted in shoot tip death and prolific branching from axillary buds. Chelator studies with EGTA and tracer studies with 45 Ca, indicated a direct involvement of calcium at the shoot tip for shoot tip maintenance. Interestingly, low root zone calcium deficiency syptoms could be mitigated with 0.001 to 0.01 μM of the auxin analog NAA. Developmental studies of calcium deficiency symptoms indicate no anatomical relationship with shoot tip necrosis as xylem conducting elements were found near the shoot apex regardless of the root zone calcium level. These results have important implications for potato shoot development especially during the early development stage from the seed piece.

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Vito S. Polito, Kirk D. Larson, and Katherine Pinney

Bronzing of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) fruit that is not the result of arthropod feeding or chemical spray application occurs frequently in California's central coast strawberry production region from late spring through midsummer, a period characterized by relatively high temperature, low relative humidity, and high solar irradiance. The cause of this phenomenon is not known, but in preliminary trials, intermittent, midday misting of plants and increased drip irrigation rate resulted in reduced incidence of fruit bronzing. To characterize the bronzing phenomenon and its development in strawberry fruit tissues, we conducted an anatomical and histochemical examination of bronzed fruit. Bronzed and nonbronzed fruit were sampled over a range of fruit maturities. Results show that bronzing derives from a lesion at the cortical surface early in the fruit's development. Epidermal cells become radially compressed and the cell contents coalesce into a densely staining mass. The cuticular layer becomes disrupted and discontinuous. As the fruit develops, densely staining materials, possibly phenolic precipitates, accumulate within subepidermal cells of bronzed fruit, subepidermal cell walls thicken, and intercellular spaces fill with pectic substances and other densely staining materials. Results are consistent with reports of sunscald injury from other fruit species, and raise the possibility that strawberry bronzing occurs in response to heat or solar radiation injury.

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S. Laywisadkul, C.F. Scagel, L.H. Fuchigami, and R.G. Linderman

concentrations remained the same; in Expt. 1, spraying trees with CuEDTA decreased stem N concentrations and had no influence on lesion development; in Expt. 2, trees sprayed in November developed similar or lower stem N concentrations and developed larger

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John L. Maas and M.J. Line

We report the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging to detect differences in invasion and colonization of fruit by pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, and Phytophthora cactorum), and bruise wounds are sharply distinguishable from healthy fruit tissue by their T1 times. Digitized images from T1 images clearly show two or more zones of pathogen activity in fruit tissue. The innermost zone corresponds to the area of greatest invasive activity at the leading margin of the infection. A second zone corresponds to the area of tissue that has been killed and is being degraded by the pathogen. Sometimes, a third zone is present at the outer border of the lesion and this correspond to where aerial sporulation may occur. Images of bruises, however, are uniform with no apparent gradations in T1 characteristics. Detection of fruit deterioration and decay is important in understanding and controlling postharvest loss of fruit crops. The nondestructive nature of MRI provides a means to quantify the process of decay development and control measures applied to fruits.

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J. Song, R. Leepipattanawit, W. Deng, and R.M. Beaudry

Hexanal vapor inhibited hyphae growth of P. expansum Link. and B. cinerea Pers. on PDA media and on apple slices. After 48 hours exposure to 100 μl·liter–1 hexanal, the hyphae growth of both fungi was ≈ 50% that of nontreated controls. At a concentration of 250 μl·liter–1, neither fungi grew during the treatment period, however, some growth of both fungi occurred 120 hours after treatment. At concentrations of hexanal vapor of ≥450 μl·liter–1, the growth of both fungi ceased, and the organisms were apparently killed, neither showing regrowth when moved to air. When fungi were allowed to germinate and grow for 48 hours in hexanal-free air, a subsequent 48-hour exposure to 250 μl·liter–1 hexanal slowed colony growth relative to controls for several days and a 48-hour exposure to 450 μl·liter–1 stopped growth completely. Concentrations of hexanal that inhibited fungal growth on PDA also retarded decay lesion development on `Golden Delicious' and on `Jonagold' apple slices. Hexanal treatment stimulated aroma volatile production in `Jonagold' and `Golden Delicious' apple slices with hexanol and hexylacetate production strongly enhanced after 20 to 30 hours of treatment. A small amount of butylhexanoate and hexylhexanoate production also was noted. Since hexanal was converted to aroma-related volatiles by the fruit, the possibility of developing a system for nonresiduel antifungal agent is promising. This possibility was examined in modified-atmosphere packages.