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Justine E. Vanden Heuvel, Steven D. Lerch, Celine Coquard Lenerz, James M. Meyers, and Anna Katharine Mansfield

preference for ‘Noiret’ wines produced from a young vineyard. Materials and methods Vineyard site and experimental design. The planting was established at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY, in 2007 with dormant 1-year-old vines

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Andrew L. Thomas, Jackie L. Harris, Elijah A. Bergmeier, and R. Keith Striegler

cordons (single curtain) established at an average height of 5.8 ft above the berms. Dormant, bare-root planting materials were obtained from Vintage Nurseries (Wasco, CA) and planted on 5 May 2009, established either as own-rooted ‘Chambourcin’ vines or

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Li Li, Xiaohong Yao, Caihong Zhong, Xuzhong Chen, and Hongwen Huang

the pulp, seeds are traditionally extracted and then dried in the shade ( Xiong et al., 2005 ). Under optimal storage conditions, seeds can remain viable for 2 to 3 years. Seeds require stratification to overcome dormancy and for embryo maturation

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Mercy Olmstead, Timothy W. Miller, Callie S. Bolton, and Carol A. Miles

., 2003 ). The vineyard was amended for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium based on preplant soil tests ( Bolton, 2011 ), and dormant grafted vines were hand transplanted in June 2009. All vines were trained to a spur pruned, bilateral cordon system. Five

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Marisa Y. Thompson, Jennifer J. Randall, Dawn VanLeeuwen, and Richard J. Heerema

0.059 and 0.070 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. In 2014 leaf tissues, the date main effect was not statistically significant according to the CpAP1 analysis using all available data ( Table 5 , Fig. 1A ). After the removal of two outliers (out of

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Benjamin D. Toft, Mobashwer M. Alam, John D. Wilkie, and Bruce L. Topp

canopy due to low light levels. Current management techniques mainly rely on biomass removal using mechanical hedging, which is intended to maintain machinery access rather than canopy efficiency ( McFadyen et al., 2011 ). Hedging may negatively affect

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester, Bahar Fallahi, and Shahla Mahdavi

pollinizer between every 10 ‘Aztec Fuji’ trees. Trees were trained into either central leader slender spindle with four lower main scaffolds CL or TS during the dormant season in early March each year. Tree leaders were maintained at ≈3.75 m in height

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Julie M. Tarara, Bernardo Chaves, Luis A. Sanchez, and Nick K. Dokoozlian

those in Vineyard 2 ( V. vinifera ‘Chardonnay’; 30.68 ha) were oriented east–west. In both vineyards, vines were trained to a unilateral cordon (horizontal extension of the trunk) at ≈1.1 m aboveground and were dormant-pruned annually to two-bud spurs

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Lindsay M. Jordan, Thomas Björkman, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

was dormant pruned to four 10-bud fruiting canes with renewal spurs, and the prunings were weighed on a per-vine basis with a hanging scale accurate to 0.01 kg (model SA3N340; Salter Brecknell, Fairmont, MN). Enhanced point quadrat analysis. At

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Paul M. Lyrene

the recurrent parent) produced upright canes bearing large numbers of short, stiff side branches oriented perpendicular to the upright canes. These seemed analogous to fruiting spurs in apricots, almonds, apples, and pears. Branches of this kind are