The effect of temperature on the ability of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon to induce ethylene evolution and abscission of mature fruit and leaves was determined using 3-year-old potted `Hamlin' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees in environment-controlled growth rooms in seasons 2001-02 and 2002-03. Ethylene evolution and abscission of CMNP or ethephon-treated fruit and ethephon-treated leaves were highly temperature dependent. Fruit detachment force (FDF) and fruit ethylene evolution were not affected by application of ethephon at 200 mg·L-1 or CMNP at 200 mg·L-1 when air temperature was 10 °C for ethephon treatment or ≤15.6 °C for CMNP treatment. However, ethylene evolution of CMNP or ethephon-treated fruit increased sharply, and FDF decreased drastically as temperature increased from 10 to 26.7 °C for ethephon treatment or from 15.6 to 26.7 °C for CMNP treatment. Several 10 hour day/14 hour night temperature regimes were explored to determine the effect of varying daily and nightly temperatures on efficacy and ethylene evolution. At least 3 days of exposure to 21/10 °C were required for CMNP to effectively loosen fruit, whereas only one day of exposure to 26.7/15.6 °C was enough to induce similar changes. At 21/10 °C, CMNP significantly reduced FDF to<25 N and markedly enhanced fruit ethylene evolution, regardless of interruption by 1 day of low temperature at 10/10 °C in the first 5 d after application. Ethephon had no significant effect on leaf ethylene evolution and leaf abscission when temperature was 10 °C, but caused a marked increase in both leaf ethylene evolution and leaf abscission as temperature increased from 10 to 26.7 °C. CMNP did not stimulate leaf ethylene evolution and leaf abscission regardless of temperature. Chemical names used: 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1 H-Pyrazole (CMNP); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).
Rongcai Yuan and Jacqueline K. Burns
Jacqueline K. Burns, Luis V. Pozo, Rongcai Yuan and Brandon Hockema
Guanfacine and clonidine were combined with ethephon or metsulfuron-methyl in the spray tank and applied as foliar sprays to Citrus sinensis L. Osb. `Valencia', Citrus madurensis Loureiro (calamondin), and Prunus persica `Elberta' to determine their effects on leaf loss, fruit detachment force (FDF), immature fruit loss, and twig dieback. In `Valencia' orange, `Elberta' peach and calamondin, guanfacine and clonidine effectively reduced ethephon-induced defoliation in all three tree species, whereas only guanfacine was effective with metsulfuron-methyl applications in `Valencia'. The ability of ethephon to reduce FDF in `Valencia' was only minimally impaired by guanfacine but not impaired by clonidine. Both guanfacine and clonidine diminished the capacity of metsulfuron-methyl to reduce FDF. Guanfacine reduced immature fruit loss of `Valencia' caused by metsulfuron-methyl and reduced twig-dieback. Leaf loss was reduced whether guanfacine or clonidine were applied with ethephon, or 24 hours or 17 days before ethephon application. Guanfacine and clonidine reduced leaf loss induced by continuous exposure of potted calamondin trees to ethylene, and leaf loss was similar with guanfacine and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments. In separate experiments, guanfacine and clonidine were unable to block ethylene perception in Arabidopsis seedlings and petunia flowers but promoted rooting in coleus and tomato vegetative cuttings, suggesting that these compounds have auxin-like activity. The results demonstrate the potential to enhance selectivity of abscission agents with guanfacine and clonidine. Chemical names used: 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]-2-imidazoline, clonidine; 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-pyrazole, CMN-P; [(2,6-dichlorophenyl)acetyl]guanidine, guanfacine; [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid, ethephon; indole-3-butyric acid, IBA; 1-methylcyclopropene, 1-MCP.
Tripti Vashisth and Anish Malladi
detachment force and an increase in the extent of fruit drop ( Kostenyuk and Burns, 2004 ). Injury to the fruit may result in the generation and release of a variety of signals including phytohormones such as ethylene and jasmonates ( Howe, 2004 ). Some of
Joyous Suiyigheh Tata and Hans Christian Wien
in the opposite direction. The petal detachment force technique was adapted from a method described by Moebius-Clune et al. (2008) for intact soil core penetration resistance measurement in the laboratory. This device (1000 kg arbor press, SKU 3552
U. Hartmond, J.D. Whitney, J.K. Burns and W.J. Kender
Two field studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of metsulfuron-methyl and 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMN-pyrazole) on abscission of `Valencia' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] during the 3-month harvest season. Solutions of metsulfuron-methyl at 0.5, 1, and 2 mg·L-1 active ingredient (a.i.) were applied at 10-day intervals beginning on 13 Feb. and ending 18 May 1998. Early in the harvest season, 1 or 2 mg·L-1 metsulfuron-methyl significantly reduced fruit detachment force (FDF) 14 days after application. Metsulfuron-methyl was less effective during a 4- to 6-week period following bloom (“less-responsive period”). After this period, metsulfuron-methyl regained the ability to loosen fruit. Applications of 2 mg·L-1 a.i. were more effective than 1 mg·L-1 in reducing FDF and causing leaf drop, but 0.5 mg·L-1 a.i. had little or no effect on FDF. Flowers and leaflets on developing shoots and young fruit completely abscised with 1 and 2 mg·L-1 a.i. Defoliation and twig dieback was extensive at all concentrations and spray dates, eliminating metsulfuron-methyl as a commercially viable abscission agent for citrus. In a separate experiment CMN-pyrazole at 50 and 100 mg·L-1 a.i. and metsulfuronmethyl at 0.5 mg·L-1 a.i. were applied to `Valencia' trees to determine fruit removal with a trunk shake and catch harvesting system. Application of both abscission materials before and after the “less-responsive period” resulted in a 10% to 12% increase in fruit removal when compared to control trees. Less than a 35% reduction in FDF was sufficient to significantly increase fruit removal. Only 100 mg·L-1 a.i. CMN-pyrazole significantly increased fruit removal when applied during the “less-responsive period.” Chemical names used: Methyl-2-(((((4-Methoxy-6-Methyl-1,3,5-Triazin-2-yl)-Amino)Carbonyl) Amino)Sulfonyl)Benzene (Metsulfuron-methyl); 5-Chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1-H-pyrazole (CMN-pyrazole).
Patrick J. Conner
important quality characteristics of fresh-market grapes ( Sato et al., 1997 ). Texture includes all physical characteristics sensed by touch, which are related to deformation under applied force, and can be measured objectively in terms of force, distance
James W. Olmstead and Chad E. Finn
length resulted in loose fruit clusters amenable to MFF in ‘FL 01–173’ (Meadowlark) ( Olmstead et al., 2013 ). Fruit that require low detachment force at the mature blue stage compared with green fruit are the best for MFF. Variation in fruit detachment
James W. Olmstead, Hilda Patricia Rodríguez Armenta and Paul M. Lyrene
ideal cultivar would have fruit that require low detachment force at the mature blue stage compared with green fruit. Natural variation in fruit detachment force among SHB selections has been documented ( Sargent et al., 2010 ), and abscission agents
Jesús A. Gil-Ribes, Louise Ferguson, Sergio Castro-Garcia and Gregorio L. Blanco-Rodán
to a new tree crop includes evaluating the tree architecture, canopy density, pruning, injury susceptibility, orchard density, and bearing habit. Also, factors as fruit weight, size and detachment force, and fruit displacement required, how to produce
Jacqueline K. Burns
fruit to 1-MCP + ethephon was discovered during a screen for selective abscission compounds for citrus. Fig. 1. Fruit detachment force (FDF, left graph) and percentage (%) leaf abscission (right graph) 5 and 15 d after application of 400 mg·L −1